Toxins 2014, 6(2), 592-607; doi:10.3390/toxins6020592
Article

Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles

Received: 8 November 2013; in revised form: 3 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) on glutamate-evoked temporalis muscle pain and vasomotor responses was investigated in healthy men and women over a 60 day time course. Subjects participated in a pre-BoNTA session where their responses to injection of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) and saline (0.2 mL) into the temporalis muscles were assessed. On Day 1, BoNTA (5 U) was injected into one temporalis muscle and saline into the contralateral temporalis muscle, in a randomized order. Subjects then received intramuscular injections of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) into the left and right temporalis muscles at 3 h and subsequently 7, 30 and 60 days post-injection of BoNTA. Pain intensity, pain area, and neurogenic inflammation (skin temperature and skin blood perfusion) were recorded. Prior to BoNTA treatment, glutamate evoked significantly greater pain and vasomotor reactions (P < 0.001) than saline. BoNTA significantly reduced glutamate-evoked pain intensity (P < 0.05), pain area (P < 0.01), skin blood perfusion (P < 0.05), and skin temperature (P < 0.001). The inhibitory effect of BoNTA was present at 3 h after injection, peaked after 7 days and returned to baseline by 60 days. Findings from the present study demonstrated a rapid action of BoNTA on glutamate-evoked pain and neurogenic inflammation, which is in line with animal studies.
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin type A; temporalis muscle; glutamate; pain; neurogenic; vasomotor
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [721 KB, uploaded 10 February 2014 13:21 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva, L.B.; Kulas, D.; Karshenas, A.; Cairns, B.E.; Bach, F.W.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Gazerani, P. Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles. Toxins 2014, 6, 592-607.

AMA Style

da Silva LB, Kulas D, Karshenas A, Cairns BE, Bach FW, Arendt-Nielsen L, Gazerani P. Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):592-607.

Chicago/Turabian Style

da Silva, Larissa B.; Kulas, Dolarose; Karshenas, Ali; Cairns, Brian E.; Bach, Flemming W.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa. 2014. "Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles." Toxins 6, no. 2: 592-607.

Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert