Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1402-1421; doi:10.3390/toxins5081402
Review

Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

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Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells.
Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; infections; Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxins; superantigens
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MDPI and ACS Style

Willerslev-Olsen, A.; Krejsgaard, T.; Lindahl, L.M.; Bonefeld, C.M.; Wasik, M.A.; Koralov, S.B.; Geisler, C.; Kilian, M.; Iversen, L.; Woetmann, A.; Odum, N. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Toxins 2013, 5, 1402-1421.

AMA Style

Willerslev-Olsen A, Krejsgaard T, Lindahl LM, Bonefeld CM, Wasik MA, Koralov SB, Geisler C, Kilian M, Iversen L, Woetmann A, Odum N. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Toxins. 2013; 5(8):1402-1421.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M.; Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Koralov, Sergei B.; Geisler, Carsten; Kilian, Mogens; Iversen, Lars; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels. 2013. "Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma." Toxins 5, no. 8: 1402-1421.

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