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Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark
Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Department of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Abstract: In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells.
Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; infections; Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxins; superantigens
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Willerslev-Olsen, A.; Krejsgaard, T.; Lindahl, L.M.; Bonefeld, C.M.; Wasik, M.A.; Koralov, S.B.; Geisler, C.; Kilian, M.; Iversen, L.; Woetmann, A.; Odum, N. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Toxins 2013, 5, 1402-1421.
Willerslev-Olsen A, Krejsgaard T, Lindahl LM, Bonefeld CM, Wasik MA, Koralov SB, Geisler C, Kilian M, Iversen L, Woetmann A, Odum N. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Toxins. 2013; 5(8):1402-1421.
Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M.; Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Koralov, Sergei B.; Geisler, Carsten; Kilian, Mogens; Iversen, Lars; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels. 2013. "Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma." Toxins 5, no. 8: 1402-1421.