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Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1402-1421; doi:10.3390/toxins5081402
Review

Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

1
, 1
, 2
, 1
, 3
, 4
, 1
, 5
, 2
, 1
 and 1,*
1 Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark 2 Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark 3 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 4 Department of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA 5 Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
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Abstract

In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells.
Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; infections; Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxins; superantigens cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; infections; Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxins; superantigens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Willerslev-Olsen, A.; Krejsgaard, T.; Lindahl, L.M.; Bonefeld, C.M.; Wasik, M.A.; Koralov, S.B.; Geisler, C.; Kilian, M.; Iversen, L.; Woetmann, A.; Odum, N. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Toxins 2013, 5, 1402-1421.

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