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Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2671-2685; doi:10.3390/toxins5122671
Article

In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes

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Received: 29 October 2013; in revised form: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
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Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, can contaminate a wide range of food and feedstuff. To date, the data on its conjugates via glucuronidation request clarification and consolidation. In the present study, the combined approaches of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), UHPLC-Orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography-multiple stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) were utilized to investigate the metabolic profile of OTA in rat liver microsomes. Three conjugated products of OTA corresponding to amino-, phenol- and acyl-glucuronides were identified, and the related structures were confirmed by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Moreover, OTA methyl ester, OTα and OTα-glucuronide were also found in the reaction solution. Based on these results, an in vitro metabolic pathway of OTA has been proposed for the first time.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; glucuronidation; metabolic pathway; rat liver microsomes; Orbitrap ochratoxin A; glucuronidation; metabolic pathway; rat liver microsomes; Orbitrap
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Z.; Tangni, E.K.; Di Mavungu, J.D.; Vanhaecke, L.; De Saeger, S.; Wu, A.; Callebaut, A. In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes. Toxins 2013, 5, 2671-2685.

AMA Style

Han Z, Tangni EK, Di Mavungu JD, Vanhaecke L, De Saeger S, Wu A, Callebaut A. In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2671-2685.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Zheng; Tangni, Emmanuel K.; Di Mavungu, José D.; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo; Callebaut, Alfons. 2013. "In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2671-2685.


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