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Toxins 2012, 4(3), 157-190; doi:10.3390/toxins4030157
Review

The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?

Received: 16 January 2012; in revised form: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 19 February 2012 / Published: 1 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
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Abstract: Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Keywords: Shiga toxins; ricin; ribosome-inactivating proteins; polymorphonuclear leukocytes; hemolytic uremic syndrome Shiga toxins; ricin; ribosome-inactivating proteins; polymorphonuclear leukocytes; hemolytic uremic syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brigotti, M. The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety? Toxins 2012, 4, 157-190.

AMA Style

Brigotti M. The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety? Toxins. 2012; 4(3):157-190.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brigotti, Maurizio. 2012. "The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?" Toxins 4, no. 3: 157-190.


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