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Ricin Trafficking in Plant and Mammalian Cells
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2011; in revised form: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 23 June 2011 / Published: 30 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ricin Toxin
Abstract: Ricin is a heterodimeric plant protein that is potently toxic to mammalian and many other eukaryotic cells. It is synthesized and stored in the endosperm cells of maturing Ricinus communis seeds (castor beans). The ricin family has two major members, both, lectins, collectively known as Ricinus communis agglutinin ll (ricin) and Ricinus communis agglutinin l (RCA). These proteins are stored in vacuoles within the endosperm cells of mature Ricinus seeds and they are rapidly broken down by hydrolysis during the early stages of post-germinative growth. Both ricin and RCA traffic within the plant cell from their site of synthesis to the storage vacuoles, and when they intoxicate mammalian cells they traffic from outside the cell to their site of action. In this review we will consider both of these trafficking routes.
Keywords: ricin biosynthesis; anterograde transport; retrograde transport; endoplasmic reticulum; retrotranslocation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lord, J.M.; Spooner, R.A. Ricin Trafficking in Plant and Mammalian Cells. Toxins 2011, 3, 787-801.
Lord JM, Spooner RA. Ricin Trafficking in Plant and Mammalian Cells. Toxins. 2011; 3(7):787-801.
Lord, J. Michael; Spooner, Robert A. 2011. "Ricin Trafficking in Plant and Mammalian Cells." Toxins 3, no. 7: 787-801.