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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1165; doi:10.3390/nu9111165

Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Department of Urology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
5
GeneSTAR Research Program, General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Abstract

Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; gene-diet interaction; human disease; inflammation; fatty acid desaturase genes; arachidonic acid; eicosanoids; endocannabinoids omega-3 fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; gene-diet interaction; human disease; inflammation; fatty acid desaturase genes; arachidonic acid; eicosanoids; endocannabinoids
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Chilton, F.H.; Dutta, R.; Reynolds, L.M.; Sergeant, S.; Mathias, R.A.; Seeds, M.C. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1165.

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