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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1163; doi:10.3390/nu9111163

Major Differences in Diet across Three Linguistic Regions of Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH

1
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Route de la Corniche 10, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3
Health Division, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Stadtbachstrasse 64, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
4
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organization, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, France
5
Risk Assessment Division, Scientific Evaluation Sector, Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO), Schwarzenburgstrasse 155, 3003 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract

Switzerland is a multilingual country located between Germany, France and Italy, which differ by dietary habits and related outcomes. We explored differences in food consumption as well as compliance to the Swiss food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) across the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions. The 2014–2015 nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among a stratified random sample of 2057 adults aged 18 to 75 years. Trained dietitians assessed food consumption via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls using the international validated software GloboDiet®. Recorded foods and beverages were classified into six groups and 31 subgroups relevant for assessing compliance to the FBDG (Swiss Food Pyramid). Usual daily intake distributions were modelled and weighted for sampling design, non-response, weekdays and season. Participation rate was 38%. Significant differences across regions were observed in 18 of 31 food subgroups (p ≤ 0.01). Weighted mean daily intakes in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions were, respectively, 245 g, 155 g, 140 g for soft drinks, 273 g, 214 g, 135 g for coffee, 127 g, 72 g, 109 g for milk, 32 g, 45 g, 43 g for red meat, 18 g, 29 g, 34 g for fish/seafood, 8.1 g, 6.4 g, 3.7 g for butter, and 206 g, 214 g, 168 g for vegetables. The seven FBDGs were followed by <1% of the population. Four in 10 participants met ≥3 FBDG. Eighteen percent of participants ate ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, without regional differences. Food consumption substantially differed across the three linguistic regions of Switzerland. Adherence to FBDG was uniformly low. This highlights the potential influence of culture on diet. Nutritional education along with public health interventions are needed and may be most efficient if regionally targeted. View Full-Text
Keywords: national nutrition survey; food consumption; 24-h dietary recall; GloboDiet®/EPIC-Soft®; food-based dietary guidelines; Swiss adults national nutrition survey; food consumption; 24-h dietary recall; GloboDiet®/EPIC-Soft®; food-based dietary guidelines; Swiss adults
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chatelan, A.; Beer-Borst, S.; Randriamiharisoa, A.; Pasquier, J.; Blanco, J.M.; Siegenthaler, S.; Paccaud, F.; Slimani, N.; Nicolas, G.; Camenzind-Frey, E.; Zuberbuehler, C.A.; Bochud, M. Major Differences in Diet across Three Linguistic Regions of Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1163.

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