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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1164; doi:10.3390/nu9111164

Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

1
Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
3
Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [226 KB, uploaded 25 October 2017]

Abstract

Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) (p-values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium; diet; Healthy Eating Index 2010; and 24-h diet recall sodium; diet; Healthy Eating Index 2010; and 24-h diet recall
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mercado, C.I.; Cogswell, M.E.; Perrine, C.G.; Gillespie, C. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1164.

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