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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1076; doi:10.3390/nu9101076

Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer

Molecular Oncology and Nutritional Genomics of Cancer Group, IMDEA Food Institute, CEI UAM + CSIC, Carretera de Cantoblanco 8, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Abstract

Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision nutrition paradigms. Likewise, we will discuss the application of precision nutrition approaches to target lipid metabolism in CRC. View Full-Text
Keywords: precision nutrition; lipid metabolism; colorectal cancer; diet; genomics; transcriptomics; SNPs; obesity; microbiota precision nutrition; lipid metabolism; colorectal cancer; diet; genomics; transcriptomics; SNPs; obesity; microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aguirre-Portolés, C.; Fernández, L.P.; Ramírez de Molina, A. Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1076.

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