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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1079; doi:10.3390/nu9101079

Efficacy of a Fatty Acids Dietary Supplement in a Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration

1
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, via San Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutrafood “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Section of Eye and Vision, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St Erik Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Polhemsgatan 50, SE-112 82 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Sooft Fidia Pharma, Contrada Molino 17, 63833 Montegiorgio (FM), Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4202 KB, uploaded 29 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Current knowledge of the benefits of nutrition supplements for eye pathologies is based largely on the use of appropriate animal models, together with defined dietary supplementation. Here, C57BL6 mice were subretinally injected with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400, an established model of retinal degeneration with a dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-like phenotype, an eye pathology that lacks treatment. In response to PEG-400, markers of the complement system, angiogenesis, inflammation, gliosis, and macrophage infiltration were upregulated in both retinas and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroids, whereas dietary supplementation with a mixture based on fatty acids counteracted their upregulation. Major effects include a reduction of inflammation, in both retinas and RPE/choroids, and an inhibition of macrophage infiltration in the choroid, yet not in the retina, suggesting a targeted action through the choroidal vasculature. Histological analysis revealed a thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), together with dysregulation of the epithelium layer in response to PEG-400. In addition, immunohistofluorescence demonstrated Müller cell gliosis and macrophage infiltration into subretinal tissues supporting the molecular findings. Reduced ONL thickness, gliosis, and macrophage infiltration were counteracted by the diet supplement. The present data suggest that fatty acids may represent a useful form of diet supplementation to prevent or limit the progression of dry AMD. View Full-Text
Keywords: complement system; inflammation; macrophage infiltration; dry age-related macular degeneration; dietary supplementation complement system; inflammation; macrophage infiltration; dry age-related macular degeneration; dietary supplementation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cammalleri, M.; Dal Monte, M.; Locri, F.; Lardner, E.; Kvanta, A.; Rusciano, D.; André, H.; Bagnoli, P. Efficacy of a Fatty Acids Dietary Supplement in a Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1079.

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