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Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1554-1577; doi:10.3390/nu6041554
Article

Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

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Received: 30 December 2013; in revised form: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health)
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Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We also evaluated the effects of AA on expression of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) after MCAO/Re in the brain. The diabetic state markedly aggravated MCAO/Re-induced cerebral damage, as assessed by infarct volume and edema. Pretreatment with AA (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for two weeks significantly suppressed the exacerbation of damage in the brain of diabetic rats. AA also suppressed the production of superoxide radical, activation of caspase-3, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in the ischemic penumbra. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that expression of SVCT2 was upregulated primarily in neurons and capillary endothelial cells after MCAO/Re in the nondiabetic cortex, accompanied by an increase in total AA (AA + dehydroascorbic acid) in the tissue, and that these responses were suppressed in the diabetic rats. AA supplementation to the diabetic rats restored these responses to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, AA markedly upregulated the basal expression of GLUT1 in endothelial cells of nondiabetic and diabetic cortex, which did not affect total AA levels in the cortex. These results suggest that daily intake of AA attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via the improvement of augmented oxidative stress in the brain. AA supplementation may protect endothelial function against the exacerbated ischemic oxidative injury in the diabetic state and improve AA transport through SVCT2 in the cortex.
Keywords: ascorbic acid; diabetes mellitus; oxidative stress; apoptosis; proinflammatory; cytokine; sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2); glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1); rat; streptozotocin; middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion ascorbic acid; diabetes mellitus; oxidative stress; apoptosis; proinflammatory; cytokine; sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2); glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1); rat; streptozotocin; middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwata, N.; Okazaki, M.; Xuan, M.; Kamiuchi, S.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hibino, Y. Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1554-1577.

AMA Style

Iwata N, Okazaki M, Xuan M, Kamiuchi S, Matsuzaki H, Hibino Y. Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion. Nutrients. 2014; 6(4):1554-1577.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iwata, Naohiro; Okazaki, Mari; Xuan, Meiyan; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Hibino, Yasuhide. 2014. "Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion." Nutrients 6, no. 4: 1554-1577.


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