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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 725-764

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis
Nutrients 2011, 3(8), 725-733; doi:10.3390/nu3080725
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 11 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT) vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001). Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs) for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001) for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h) vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h), GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h) and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h), but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h) and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h) was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001), but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Metabolism)

Review

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Open AccessReview Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and l-Carnitine
Nutrients 2011, 3(8), 735-755; doi:10.3390/nu3080735
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the [...] Read more.
Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and l-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Benefits of Nutrients)
Open AccessReview Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium
Nutrients 2011, 3(8), 756-764; doi:10.3390/nu3080756
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 19 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Salt and Human Health)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Barclay, A.W. and Brand-Miller, J. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased. Nutrients 2011, 3, 491-504
Nutrients 2011, 3(8), 734; doi:10.3390/nu3080734
Received: 29 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
PDF Full-text (27 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have found some errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. We found that reference 18 in section 2.2 should be removed, the reference 18 in section 3.1 should be replaced with reference 19 and the reference 33 should be corrected [...] Read more.
We have found some errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. We found that reference 18 in section 2.2 should be removed, the reference 18 in section 3.1 should be replaced with reference 19 and the reference 33 should be corrected as follows. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

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