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Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease
DiPsiTer, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, via Ubaldini 17, 61029, Urbino, PU, Italy
DiSUAN, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, via Maggetti 22, 61029, Urbino, PU, Italy
King’s College London, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2009; Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Abstract: The immunogenic potential of α-gliadin protein from two ancient wheats was studied with reference to coeliac disease. To this aim we investigated Graziella Ra® and Kamut® (the latter is considered an ancient relative of modern durum wheat) in comparison to four durum wheat accessions (Senatore Cappelli, Flaminio, Grazia and Svevo). ELISA and Western Blot analyses - carried out by two monoclonal antibodies raised against the α-gliadin peptides p31-49 (LGQQQPFPQQPYPQPQPF) and p56-75 (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPY) containing a core region (underlined) reported to be toxic for coeliac patients - always showed an antibody-antigen positive reaction. For all accessions, an α-gliadin gene has also been cloned and sequenced. Deduced amino acid sequences constantly showed the toxic motifs. In conclusion, we strongly recommend that coeliac patients should avoid consuming Graziella Ra® or Kamut®. In fact their α-gliadin not only is as toxic as one of the other wheat accessions, but also occurs in greater amount, which is in line with the higher level of proteins in ancient wheats when compared to modern varieties.
Keywords: coeliac disease; ancient wheats; α-gliadin; toxic peptides; monoclonal antibodies; Triticum turgidum durum
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MDPI and ACS Style
Gregorini, A.; Colomba, M.; Ellis, H.J.; Ciclitira, P.J. Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease. Nutrients 2009, 1, 276-290.
Gregorini A, Colomba M, Ellis HJ, Ciclitira PJ. Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease. Nutrients. 2009; 1(2):276-290.
Gregorini, Armando; Colomba, Mariastella; Ellis, H. Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J. 2009. "Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease." Nutrients 1, no. 2: 276-290.