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Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 291-301; doi:10.3390/nu1020291
Article

Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

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Received: 9 October 2009; Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
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Abstract: In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system.
Keywords: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); PUFA; rearing systems; food authenticity; nutritional physiological state; 13C NMR profiling gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); PUFA; rearing systems; food authenticity; nutritional physiological state; 13C NMR profiling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Del Coco, L.; Papadia, P.; De Pascali, S.A.; Bressani, G.; Storelli, C.; Zonno, V.; Fanizzi, F.P. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids. Nutrients 2009, 1, 291-301.

AMA Style

Del Coco L, Papadia P, De Pascali SA, Bressani G, Storelli C, Zonno V, Fanizzi FP. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids. Nutrients. 2009; 1(2):291-301.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Del Coco, Laura; Papadia, Paride; De Pascali, Sandra A.; Bressani, Giorgia; Storelli, Carlo; Zonno, Vincenzo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo. 2009. "Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids." Nutrients 1, no. 2: 291-301.



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