Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 2, Issue 3 (March 2010), Pages 702-858

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 702-716; doi:10.3390/su2030702
Received: 28 December 2009 / Accepted: 9 February 2010 / Published: 4 March 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (73 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 717-741; doi:10.3390/su2030717
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 25 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the [...] Read more.
Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Locally Grown Foods and Farmers Markets: Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 742-756; doi:10.3390/su2030742
Received: 9 February 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Farm viability poses a grave challenge to the sustainability of agriculture and food systems: the number of acres in production continues to decline as the majority of farms earn negative net income. Two related and often overlapping marketing strategies, (i) locally grown [...] Read more.
Farm viability poses a grave challenge to the sustainability of agriculture and food systems: the number of acres in production continues to decline as the majority of farms earn negative net income. Two related and often overlapping marketing strategies, (i) locally grown foods and (ii) distribution at farmers markets, can directly enhance food system sustainability by improving farm profitability and long-term viability, as well as contributing to an array of ancillary benefits. We present results of a representative Michigan telephone survey, which measured consumers’ perceptions and behaviors around local foods and farmers markets. We discuss the implications of our findings on greater farm profitability. We conclude with suggestions for future research to enhance the contributions of locally grown foods and farmers markets to overall food system sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Wind Technology: A Framework for the Evaluation of Innovations’ Impacts on the Diffusion Potential
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 757-782; doi:10.3390/su2030757
Received: 21 December 2009 / Revised: 20 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a framework based on which innovations in wind power technologies can be evaluated from the standpoint of their contribution to diffusion expansion. The framework helps build up a missing link between the technical literature on innovations and policy-oriented contributions [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a framework based on which innovations in wind power technologies can be evaluated from the standpoint of their contribution to diffusion expansion. The framework helps build up a missing link between the technical literature on innovations and policy-oriented contributions concerned with the diffusion potential of wind power in national energy systems. The ideas are applied for the evaluation of wind technology innovations adopted in Spain. The framework can help policy-makers prioritize their innovation objectives and funding, so as to support the adoption of innovations that deserve the highest priority, given the country’s resources and energy system characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Temporal Objects—Design, Change and Sustainability
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 812-832; doi:10.3390/su2030812
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 11 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, design for change is explored as a means of contributing to socio-economic equity while minimising environmental damage. To create a material culture capable of accommodating technological progress and aesthetic development while also adhering to the principles of sustainability, it [...] Read more.
In this paper, design for change is explored as a means of contributing to socio-economic equity while minimising environmental damage. To create a material culture capable of accommodating technological progress and aesthetic development while also adhering to the principles of sustainability, it becomes important to recognise the potential role of design for change. This theme is explored here by considering design within an integrated strategy that includes mass- and local-scale manufacturing, service provision and re-manufacture. General design objectives are developed that provide a basis for generating ‘critical design’ concepts. Engagement in the process of designing requires a transmutation from generalisations to specific design decisions. This process enriches our understandings of design for change and the concepts presented here articulate the ideas via form, function, materials and aesthetics. In doing so, they provide tangible expressions of the strategic implications. These ‘temporal objects’, which in this case rely on a relatively stable technology, highlight the importance of localisation and more distributed forms of innovation. In addition, they clarify the designer’s role in developing useful things that are capable of being continually transformed through time, with continuous use of technological components and changing aesthetic components that, through creative employment of materials, have virtually no detrimental environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 833-843; doi:10.3390/su2030833
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 22 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from [...] Read more.
Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Efficient Building Solutions
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 844-858; doi:10.3390/su2030844
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 24 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 23 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (96 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq) emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Contribution of Renewable Energy Sources to the Sustainable Development of Islands: An Overview of the Literature and a Research Agenda
Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 783-811; doi:10.3390/su2030783
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 12 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Renewable energy sources (RES) have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources (RES) have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may create local socioeconomic development opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the contribution of RES to the energy sustainability of islands, focusing on the main results and the methodologies used. Papers are classified according to their coverage of the three dimensions of the triangular approach to sustainability (economic, environmental and social). The review also takes into account whether and how the procedural sustainability has been tackled in those papers. It is acknowledged that although several topics have been covered by the existing literature, there are promising avenues for future research on several fronts, both thematic and methodological. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy and Sustainability)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sustainability Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
sustainability@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sustainability
Back to Top