Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 717-741; doi:10.3390/su2030717
Article

Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

1,* email, 1, 2email, 3email, 4email, 5email and 6email
Received: 1 February 2010; in revised form: 25 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.
Keywords: coastal erosion; revegetation; Spinifex; fungal hyphae; sustainable development; bitou bush
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clements, A.; Simmonds, A.; Hazelton, P.; Inwood, C.; Woolcock, C.; Markovina, A.-L.; O’Sullivan, P. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes. Sustainability 2010, 2, 717-741.

AMA Style

Clements A, Simmonds A, Hazelton P, Inwood C, Woolcock C, Markovina A-L, O’Sullivan P. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes. Sustainability. 2010; 2(3):717-741.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clements, AnneMarie; Simmonds, Appollonia; Hazelton, Pamela; Inwood, Catherine; Woolcock, Christy; Markovina, Anne-Laure; O’Sullivan, Pamela. 2010. "Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes." Sustainability 2, no. 3: 717-741.


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