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Sustainability 2010, 2(3), 717-741; doi:10.3390/su2030717

Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

1
Anne Clements and Associates Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 1623, North Sydney 2059, Australia
2
Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
3
17 Canton Parade, Noraville, NSW 2263, Australia
4
Tentacle Inc., 2 Henderson Street, Norah Head, NSW 2263, Australia
5
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Building A10, Science Road, NSW 2006, Australia
6
Australasian Mycological Society, P.O. Box 154, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 25 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)

Abstract

Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.
Keywords: coastal erosion; revegetation; Spinifex; fungal hyphae; sustainable development; bitou bush coastal erosion; revegetation; Spinifex; fungal hyphae; sustainable development; bitou bush
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Clements, A.; Simmonds, A.; Hazelton, P.; Inwood, C.; Woolcock, C.; Markovina, A.-L.; O’Sullivan, P. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes. Sustainability 2010, 2, 717-741.

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