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Future Internet, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 363-529

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Sensing Internet—A Discussion on Its Impact on Rural Areas
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 363-371; doi:10.3390/fi7040363
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015
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Abstract
This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life
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This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The current paper describes the case for application, followed by a discussion of the observed adaptive advantages and consequences of the technology. Essentially, WSNs constitute a highly sophisticated technology that is more robust in a rural context due to its extremely simple installation procedures (plug and play) allowing the use of local less-skilled labour, and the possibility of reconfiguring and repurposing its use remotely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle Towards an “Internet of Food”: Food Ontologies for the Internet of Things
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 372-392; doi:10.3390/fi7040372
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 1 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automated food and drink recognition methods connect to cloud-based lookup databases (e.g., food item barcodes, previously identified food images, or previously classified NIR (Near Infrared) spectra of food and drink items databases) to match and identify a scanned food or drink item, and
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Automated food and drink recognition methods connect to cloud-based lookup databases (e.g., food item barcodes, previously identified food images, or previously classified NIR (Near Infrared) spectra of food and drink items databases) to match and identify a scanned food or drink item, and report the results back to the user. However, these methods remain of limited value if we cannot further reason with the identified food and drink items, ingredients and quantities/portion sizes in a proposed meal in various contexts; i.e., understand from a semantic perspective their types, properties, and interrelationships in the context of a given user’s health condition and preferences. In this paper, we review a number of “food ontologies”, such as the Food Products Ontology/FOODpedia (by Kolchin and Zamula), Open Food Facts (by Gigandet et al.), FoodWiki (Ontology-driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System by Celik), FOODS-Diabetes Edition (A Food-Oriented Ontology-Driven System by Snae Namahoot and Bruckner), and AGROVOC multilingual agricultural thesaurus (by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization—FAO). These food ontologies, with appropriate modifications (or as a basis, to be added to and further expanded) and together with other relevant non-food ontologies (e.g., about diet-sensitive disease conditions), can supplement the aforementioned lookup databases to enable progression from the mere automated identification of food and drinks in our meals to a more useful application whereby we can automatically reason with the identified food and drink items and their details (quantities and ingredients/bromatological composition) in order to better assist users in making the correct, healthy food and drink choices for their particular health condition, age, body weight/BMI (Body Mass Index), lifestyle and preferences, etc. Full article
Open AccessArticle Embedding an Identity-Based Short Signature as a Digital Watermark
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 393-404; doi:10.3390/fi7040393
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
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Abstract
Digital watermarking aims at protecting multimedia content by hiding into it some data that can be used for such purposes as, for example, intellectual property protection or integrity control. Sometimes, the owner of an image would prefer to not transmit, publish, or hand
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Digital watermarking aims at protecting multimedia content by hiding into it some data that can be used for such purposes as, for example, intellectual property protection or integrity control. Sometimes, the owner of an image would prefer to not transmit, publish, or hand to a cloud service the original image, but rather an encrypted version of it. Encrypted images allow for less embedding room with respect to their unencrypted counterparts, as there is less spatial correlation to leverage upon. An architecture for embedding as payload the digital signature of an encrypted image, by means of a reversible watermarking technique, is presented in this work. A noteworthy point is the use of an identity-based cryptosystem to avoid certificate management and improve performance. In addition, the use of IBS-1, a recently proposed signature scheme, allows for a reduction in the size of the signature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamical Trust and Reputation Computation Model for B2C E-Commerce
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 405-428; doi:10.3390/fi7040405
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trust is one of the most important factors that influence the successful application of network service environments, such as e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, and online social networks. Computation models associated with trust and reputation have been paid special attention in both computer societies
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Trust is one of the most important factors that influence the successful application of network service environments, such as e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, and online social networks. Computation models associated with trust and reputation have been paid special attention in both computer societies and service science in recent years. In this paper, a dynamical computation model of reputation for B2C e-commerce is proposed. Firstly, conceptions associated with trust and reputation are introduced, and the mathematical formula of trust for B2C e-commerce is given. Then a dynamical computation model of reputation is further proposed based on the conception of trust and the relationship between trust and reputation. In the proposed model, classical varying processes of reputation of B2C e-commerce are discussed. Furthermore, the iterative trust and reputation computation models are formulated via a set of difference equations based on the closed-loop feedback mechanism. Finally, a group of numerical simulation experiments are performed to illustrate the proposed model of trust and reputation. Experimental results show that the proposed model is effective in simulating the dynamical processes of trust and reputation for B2C e-commerce. Full article
Open AccessArticle Social Empowerment of Intellectually Impaired through a Cloud Mobile System
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 429-444; doi:10.3390/fi7040429
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
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Abstract
There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels
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There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Future Internet: A World of Secret Shares
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 445-464; doi:10.3390/fi7040445
Received: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
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Abstract
The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is crumbling, partially due to the lack of a strong understanding of how encryption actually works, but also due to weaknesses in its implementation. This paper outlines an Internet storage technique using secret sharing methods which could be
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The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is crumbling, partially due to the lack of a strong understanding of how encryption actually works, but also due to weaknesses in its implementation. This paper outlines an Internet storage technique using secret sharing methods which could be used to overcome the problems inherent with PKI, while supporting new types of architectures incorporating such things as automated failover and break-glass data recovery. The paper outlines a novel architecture: SECRET, which supports a robust cloud-based infrastructure with in-built privacy and failover. In order to understand the performance overhead of SECRET, the paper outlines a range of experiments that investigate the overhead of this and other secret share methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet Security)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Cloud Computing with Ant Colony Optimization
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 465-483; doi:10.3390/fi7040465
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
How to distribute and coordinate tasks in cloud computing is a challenging issue, in order to get optimal resource utilization and avoid overload. In this paper, we present a novel approach on load balancing via ant colony optimization (ACO), for balancing the workload
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How to distribute and coordinate tasks in cloud computing is a challenging issue, in order to get optimal resource utilization and avoid overload. In this paper, we present a novel approach on load balancing via ant colony optimization (ACO), for balancing the workload in a cloud computing platform dynamically. Two strategies, forward-backward ant mechanism and max-min rules, are introduced to quickly find out the candidate nodes for load balancing. We formulate pheromone initialization and pheromone update according to physical resources under the cloud computing environment, including pheromone evaporation, incentive, and punishment rules, etc. Combined with task execution prediction, we define the moving probability of ants in two ways, that is, whether the forward ant meets the backward ant, or not, in the neighbor node, with the aim of accelerating searching processes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed strategy can not only provide dynamic load balancing for cloud computing with less searching time, but can also get high network performance under medium and heavily loaded contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improving Teacher Effectiveness: Designing Better Assessment Tools in Learning Management Systems
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 484-499; doi:10.3390/fi7040484
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
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Abstract
Current-generation assessment tools used in K-12 and post-secondary education are limited in the type of questions they support; this limitation makes it difficult for instructors to navigate their assessment engines. Furthermore, the question types tend to score low on Bloom’s Taxonomy. Dedicated learning
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Current-generation assessment tools used in K-12 and post-secondary education are limited in the type of questions they support; this limitation makes it difficult for instructors to navigate their assessment engines. Furthermore, the question types tend to score low on Bloom’s Taxonomy. Dedicated learning management systems (LMS) such as Blackboard, Moodle and Canvas are somewhat better than informal tools as they offer more question types and some randomization. Still, question types in all the major LMS assessment engines are limited. Additionally, LMSs place a heavy burden on teachers to generate online assessments. In this study we analyzed the top three LMS providers to identify inefficiencies. These inefficiencies in LMS design, point us to ways to ask better questions. Our findings show that teachers have not adopted current tools because they do not offer definitive improvements in productivity. Therefore, we developed LiquiZ, a design for a next-generation assessment engine that reduces user effort and provides more advanced question types that allow teachers to ask questions that can currently only be asked in one-on-one demonstration. The initial LiquiZ project is targeted toward STEM subjects, so the question types are particularly advantageous in math or science subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue eLearning)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Hierarchical Multitier Approach for Privacy Policies in e-Government Environments
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 500-515; doi:10.3390/fi7040500
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
The appeal of e-Government users to retain control over their personal information, while making use of advanced governmental electronic services through interconnected and interoperable deployments, can be assisted by the incorporation of privacy policy and Preferences documents. This paper addresses the formulation of
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The appeal of e-Government users to retain control over their personal information, while making use of advanced governmental electronic services through interconnected and interoperable deployments, can be assisted by the incorporation of privacy policy and Preferences documents. This paper addresses the formulation of light-weight and accurate privacy policies, while preserving compliance with underlying legal and regulatory framework. Through the exploitation of existing governmental hierarchies, a multitier approach is proposed able to support diverge data needs and processing requests imposed by service providers. The incorporation of this approach into e-Government environments will reduce the administrative workload, imposed by the inclusion of privacy policy documents, and promote the implementation and provision of user-centric and data privacy aware electronic services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet Security)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Referral Reward Considering Customer’s Budget Constraint
Future Internet 2015, 7(4), 516-529; doi:10.3390/fi7040516
Received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of
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Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP). RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM). We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards. Full article
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