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Future Internet, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 113-300

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Concept for Support of Firefighter Frontline Communication
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 113-127; doi:10.3390/fi5020113
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an indoor firefighter mission, coordination and communication support are of the utmost importance. We present our experience from over five years of research with current firefighter support technology. In contrast to some large scale emergency response research, our work is focused [...] Read more.
In an indoor firefighter mission, coordination and communication support are of the utmost importance. We present our experience from over five years of research with current firefighter support technology. In contrast to some large scale emergency response research, our work is focused on the frontline interaction between teams of firefighters and the incident commander on a single site. In this paper we investigate the flaws in firefighter communication systems. Frequent technical failures and the high cognitive costs incurred by communicating impede coordination. We then extract a list of requirements for an assistant emergency management technology from expert interviews. Thirdly, we provide a system concept and explore challenges for building a novel firefighter support system based on our previous work. The system has three key features: robust ad-hoc network, telemetry and text messaging, as well as implicit interaction. The result would provide a complementary mode of communication in addition to the current trunked radio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Management, Communications and the Internet)
Open AccessArticle Energy–QoS Trade-Offs in Mobile Service Selection
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 128-139; doi:10.3390/fi5020128
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An attractive advantage of mobile networks is that their users can gain easy access to different services. In some cases, equivalent services could be fulfilled by different providers, which brings the question of how to rationally select the best provider among all [...] Read more.
An attractive advantage of mobile networks is that their users can gain easy access to different services. In some cases, equivalent services could be fulfilled by different providers, which brings the question of how to rationally select the best provider among all possibilities. In this paper, we investigate an answer to this question from both quality-of-service (QoS) and energy perspectives by formulating an optimisation problem. We illustrate the theoretical results with examples from experimental measurements of the resulting energy and performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Methodology for Retrieving Information from Malware Encrypted Output Files: Brazilian Case Studies
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 140-167; doi:10.3390/fi5020140
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 6 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents and explains a methodology based on cryptanalytic and reverse engineering techniques that can be employed to quickly recover information from encrypted files generated by malware. The objective of the methodology is to minimize the effort with static and dynamic [...] Read more.
This article presents and explains a methodology based on cryptanalytic and reverse engineering techniques that can be employed to quickly recover information from encrypted files generated by malware. The objective of the methodology is to minimize the effort with static and dynamic analysis, by using cryptanalysis and related knowledge as much as possible. In order to illustrate how it works, we present three case studies, taken from a big Brazilian company that was victimized by directed attacks focused on stealing information from a special purpose hardware they use in their environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security of Systems and Software Resiliency)
Open AccessArticle QoS Self-Provisioning and Interference Management for Co-Channel Deployed 3G Femtocells
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 168-189; doi:10.3390/fi5020168
Received: 21 February 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
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Abstract
A highly efficient self-provisioning interference management scheme is derived for 3G Home Node-Bs (HNB). The proposed scheme comprises self-adjustment of the HNB transmission parameters to meet the targeted QoS (quality of service) requirements in terms of downlink and uplink guaranteed minimum throughput [...] Read more.
A highly efficient self-provisioning interference management scheme is derived for 3G Home Node-Bs (HNB). The proposed scheme comprises self-adjustment of the HNB transmission parameters to meet the targeted QoS (quality of service) requirements in terms of downlink and uplink guaranteed minimum throughput and coverage. This objective is achieved by means of an autonomous HNB solution, where the transmit power of pilot and data are adjusted separately, while also controlling the uplink interference pollution towards the macro-layer. The proposed scheme is evaluated by means of extensive system level simulations and the results show significant performance improvements in terms of user throughput outage probability, power efficiency, femtocell coverage, and impact on macro-layer performance as compared to prior art baseline techniques. The paper is concluded by also showing corresponding measurements from live 3G high-speed packet access (HSPA) HNB field-trials, confirming the validity of major simulation results and assumptions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Digital Differentiation in Young People’s Internet Use—Eliminating or Reproducing Disability Stereotypes
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 190-204; doi:10.3390/fi5020190
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 8 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Norwegian authorities’ policy aims at securing an information society for all, emphasizing the importance of accessible and usable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for everyone. While the body of research on young people’s use of ICT is quite comprehensive, research addressing digital [...] Read more.
Norwegian authorities’ policy aims at securing an information society for all, emphasizing the importance of accessible and usable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for everyone. While the body of research on young people’s use of ICT is quite comprehensive, research addressing digital differentiation in young people with disabilities’ use of ICT is still in its early days. This article investigates how young people with disabilities’ use, or non-use, of assistive ICT creates digital differentiations. The investigation elaborates on how the anticipations and stereotypes of disability establish an authoritative definition of assistive ICT, and the consequence this creates for the use of the Web by young people with disabilities. The object of the article is to provide enhanced insight into the field of technology and disability by illuminating how assistive ICT sometimes eliminates and sometimes reproduces stereotypes and digital differentiations. The investigation draws on a qualitative interview study with 23 young Norwegians with disabilities, aged 15–20 years. I draw on a theoretical perspective to analyze the findings of the study, which employs the concept of identity multiplicity. The article’s closing discussion expands on technology’s significance in young people’s negotiations of impairment and of perceptions of disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in the Digital Environment)
Open AccessArticle Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 237-250; doi:10.3390/fi5020237
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the [...] Read more.
The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Cash: Design and Impacts)
Open AccessArticle Racial Exclusion in the Online World
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 251-267; doi:10.3390/fi5020251
Received: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment [...] Read more.
As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in the Digital Environment)
Open AccessArticle Investigating the Tradeoffs between Power Consumption and Quality of Service in a Backbone Network
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 268-281; doi:10.3390/fi5020268
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy saving in networks has traditionally focussed on reducing battery consumption through smart wireless network design. Recently, researchers have turned their attention to the energy cost and carbon emissions of the backbone network that both fixed and mobile communications depend on, proposing [...] Read more.
Energy saving in networks has traditionally focussed on reducing battery consumption through smart wireless network design. Recently, researchers have turned their attention to the energy cost and carbon emissions of the backbone network that both fixed and mobile communications depend on, proposing primarily mechanisms that turn equipments OFF or put them into deep sleep. This is an effective way of saving energy, provided that the nodes can return to working condition quickly, but it introduces increased delays and packet losses that directly affect the quality of communication experienced by the users. Here we investigate the associated tradeoffs between power consumption and quality of service in backbone networks that employ deep sleep energy savings. We examine these tradeoffs by conducting experiments on a real PC-based network topology, where nodes are put into deep sleep at random times and intervals, resulting in a continuously changing network with reduced total power consumption. The average power consumption, the packet loss and the average delay of this network are examined with respect to the average value of the ON rate and the ON/OFF cycle of the nodes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Volunteered Geographic Information Data Contributions and Community Development for Selected World Regions
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 282-300; doi:10.3390/fi5020282
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 3 June 2013
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) projects and their crowdsourced data have been the focus of a number of scientific analyses and investigations in recent years. Oftentimes the results show that the collaboratively collected geodata of one of the most popular VGI projects, OpenStreetMap [...] Read more.
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) projects and their crowdsourced data have been the focus of a number of scientific analyses and investigations in recent years. Oftentimes the results show that the collaboratively collected geodata of one of the most popular VGI projects, OpenStreetMap (OSM), provides good coverage in urban areas when considering particular completeness factors. However, results can potentially vary significantly for different world regions. In this article, we conduct an analysis to determine similarities and differences in data contributions and community development in OSM between 12 selected urban areas of the world. Our findings showed significantly different results in data collection efforts and local OSM community sizes. European cities provide quantitatively larger amounts of geodata and number of contributors in OSM, resulting in a better representation of the real world in the dataset. Although the number of volunteers does not necessarily correlate with the general population density of the urban areas, similarities could be detected while comparing the percentage of different contributor groups and the number of changes they made to the OSM project. Further analyses show that socio-economic factors, such as income, can have an impact on the number of active contributors and the data provided in the analyzed areas. Furthermore, the results showed significant data contributions by members whose main territory of interest lies more than one thousand kilometers from the tested areas. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Cyber Threats and Defence Approaches in Emergency Management
Future Internet 2013, 5(2), 205-236; doi:10.3390/fi5020205
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emergency planners, first responders and relief workers increasingly rely on computational and communication systems that support all aspects of emergency management, from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. Failure of these systems, whether accidental or because of malicious action, can have [...] Read more.
Emergency planners, first responders and relief workers increasingly rely on computational and communication systems that support all aspects of emergency management, from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. Failure of these systems, whether accidental or because of malicious action, can have severe implications for emergency management. Accidental failures have been extensively documented in the past and significant effort has been put into the development and introduction of more resilient technologies. At the same time researchers have been raising concerns about the potential of cyber attacks to cause physical disasters or to maximise the impact of one by intentionally impeding the work of the emergency services. Here, we provide a review of current research on the cyber threats to communication, sensing, information management and vehicular technologies used in emergency management. We emphasise on open issues for research, which are the cyber threats that have the potential to affect emergency management severely and for which solutions have not yet been proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Management, Communications and the Internet)

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