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Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, 59840, USA
Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59840, USA
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A2, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 31 January 2014
Abstract: Andes virus (ANDV) is highly pathogenic in humans and is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in South America. Case-fatality rates are as high as 50% and there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies for infection. Our laboratory has recently developed a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine that expressed the glycoproteins of Andes virus in place of the native VSV glycoprotein (G). This vaccine is highly efficacious in the Syrian hamster model of HCPS when given 28 days before challenge with ANDV, or when given around the time of challenge (peri-exposure), and even protects when administered post-exposure. Herein, we sought to test the durability of the immune response to a single dose of this vaccine in Syrian hamsters. This vaccine was efficacious in hamsters challenged intranasally with ANDV 6 months after vaccination (p = 0.025), but animals were not significantly protected following 1 year of vaccination (p = 0.090). The decrease in protection correlated with a reduction of measurable neutralizing antibody responses, and suggests that a more robust vaccination schedule might be required to provide long-term immunity.
Keywords: Andes virus; vaccine; durability; antibody response; hantavirus
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Prescott, J.; DeBuysscher, B.L.; Brown, K.S.; Feldmann, H. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters. Viruses 2014, 6, 516-523.
Prescott J, DeBuysscher BL, Brown KS, Feldmann H. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters. Viruses. 2014; 6(2):516-523.
Prescott, Joseph; DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Brown, Kyle S.; Feldmann, Heinz. 2014. "Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters." Viruses 6, no. 2: 516-523.