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Analysis of an Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in College Students in Xi’an, China
Xi'an Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi'an 710054, China
Shaanxi Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi'an 710054, China
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan
College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to analyze an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), caused by a Hantavirus, in college students in the northern urban area of Xi’an in 2012. The outbreak affected six students and included two deaths. The epidemiological survey revealed that both of the deceased cases were misdiagnosed initially, and treatment was delayed. Furthermore, a higher rodent population density and lower HFRS vaccine coverage were observed in the affected area, which indicates a possible role in the outbreak. Rattus norvegicus (Rn) and Mus musculus (Mm) were the predominant host populations in the area. Genotyping revealed that all HVs from patients and rodents were Hantaan virus (HTNV). Sequence analysis of the S segments revealed that the HTNVs reported in this study had high similarity with strains reported in 2011 and 1985, but these viruses diverged from a strain isolated in 1984 and the HTNV prototype strain 76-118. Detection of anti-HV IgG and amplification of the S segment of HTNV from a non-natural HTNV reservoir indicates that further investigations by increased rodent trapping are necessary.
Keywords: Hantaan virus; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; outbreak; Xi’an City
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Ma, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, S.; Xing, Y.; Wu, R.; Wei, J.; Nawaz, M.; Tian, H.; Xu, B.; Wang, J.; Yu, P. Analysis of an Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in College Students in Xi’an, China. Viruses 2014, 6, 507-515.
Ma C, Wang Z, Li S, Xing Y, Wu R, Wei J, Nawaz M, Tian H, Xu B, Wang J, Yu P. Analysis of an Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in College Students in Xi’an, China. Viruses. 2014; 6(2):507-515.
Ma, Chaofeng; Wang, Zengguo; Li, Shen; Xing, Yuan; Wu, Rui; Wei, Jing; Nawaz, Muhammad; Tian, Huaiyu; Xu, Bing; Wang, Jingjun; Yu, Pengbo. 2014. "Analysis of an Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in College Students in Xi’an, China." Viruses 6, no. 2: 507-515.