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Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America
Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
Received: 5 August 2013; in revised form: / Accepted: 25 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
Abstract: The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective.
Keywords: West Nile virus; Culex, ecology; North America; invasion; persistence
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Reisen, W.K. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America. Viruses 2013, 5, 2079-2105.
Reisen WK. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America. Viruses. 2013; 5(9):2079-2105.
Reisen, William K. 2013. "Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America." Viruses 5, no. 9: 2079-2105.