Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2079-2105; doi:10.3390/v5092079

Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
Received: 5 August 2013; Accepted: 25 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective.
Keywords: West Nile virus; Culex, ecology; North America; invasion; persistence

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reisen, W.K. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America. Viruses 2013, 5, 2079-2105.

AMA Style

Reisen WK. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America. Viruses. 2013; 5(9):2079-2105.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reisen, William K. 2013. "Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America." Viruses 5, no. 9: 2079-2105.

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