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Viruses 2013, 5(8), 1978-1990; doi:10.3390/v5081978
Review

Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Viral Proteins in Borna Disease Virus Infection

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Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 8 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Nuclear Import)
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Abstract: Nuclear import and export of viral RNA and proteins are critical to the replication cycle of viruses that replicate in the nucleus. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that belongs to the order Mononegavirales. BDV has several distinguishing features, one of the most striking being the site of its replication. BDV RNA is transcribed and replicated in the nucleus, while most other negative-strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV macromolecules plays a key role in virus replication. Growing evidence indicates that several BDV proteins, including the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, protein X and large protein, contribute to the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV ribonucleoprotein (RNP). The directional control of BDV RNP trafficking is likely determined by the ratios of and interactions between the nuclear localization signals and nuclear export signals in the RNP. In this review, we present a comprehensive view of several unique mechanisms that BDV has developed to control its RNP trafficking and discuss the significance of BDV RNP trafficking in the replication cycle of BDV.
Keywords: Borna disease virus; RNP; NLS; NES; replication Borna disease virus; RNP; NLS; NES; replication
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Honda, T.; Tomonaga, K. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Viral Proteins in Borna Disease Virus Infection. Viruses 2013, 5, 1978-1990.

AMA Style

Honda T, Tomonaga K. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Viral Proteins in Borna Disease Virus Infection. Viruses. 2013; 5(8):1978-1990.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo. 2013. "Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Viral Proteins in Borna Disease Virus Infection." Viruses 5, no. 8: 1978-1990.



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