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Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1731-1752; doi:10.3390/v4091731

Neutralization Interfering Antibodies: A “Novel” Example of Humoral Immune Dysfunction Facilitating Viral Escape?

Microbiology and Virology Unit, “Vita-Salute” San Raffaele University, via Olgettina 58, Milan 20132, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 1 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
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Abstract

The immune response against some viral pathogens, in particular those causing chronic infections, is often ineffective notwithstanding a robust humoral neutralizing response. Several evasion mechanisms capable of subverting the activity of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been described. Among them, the elicitation of non-neutralizing and interfering Abs has been hypothesized. Recently, this evasion mechanism has acquired an increasing interest given its possible impact on novel nAb-based antiviral therapeutic and prophylactic approaches. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms of Ab-mediated interference and the viral pathogens described in literature as able to adopt this “novel” evasion strategy.
Keywords: neutralizing antibodies; non-neutralizing antibodies; interfering antibodies; viral escape mechanism neutralizing antibodies; non-neutralizing antibodies; interfering antibodies; viral escape mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicasio, M.; Sautto, G.; Clementi, N.; Diotti, R.A.; Criscuolo, E.; Castelli, M.; Solforosi, L.; Clementi, M.; Burioni, R. Neutralization Interfering Antibodies: A “Novel” Example of Humoral Immune Dysfunction Facilitating Viral Escape? Viruses 2012, 4, 1731-1752.

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