Next Article in Journal
Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands
Next Article in Special Issue
Brockman, M.A., et al., Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? Viruses 2012, 4, 1711-1730
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants?
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1731-1752; doi:10.3390/v4091731
Review

Neutralization Interfering Antibodies: A “Novel” Example of Humoral Immune Dysfunction Facilitating Viral Escape?

†,* ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
 and
Microbiology and Virology Unit, “Vita-Salute” San Raffaele University, via Olgettina 58, Milan 20132, Italy These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 1 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [825 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

The immune response against some viral pathogens, in particular those causing chronic infections, is often ineffective notwithstanding a robust humoral neutralizing response. Several evasion mechanisms capable of subverting the activity of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been described. Among them, the elicitation of non-neutralizing and interfering Abs has been hypothesized. Recently, this evasion mechanism has acquired an increasing interest given its possible impact on novel nAb-based antiviral therapeutic and prophylactic approaches. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms of Ab-mediated interference and the viral pathogens described in literature as able to adopt this “novel” evasion strategy.
Keywords: neutralizing antibodies; non-neutralizing antibodies; interfering antibodies; viral escape mechanism neutralizing antibodies; non-neutralizing antibodies; interfering antibodies; viral escape mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Nicasio, M.; Sautto, G.; Clementi, N.; Diotti, R.A.; Criscuolo, E.; Castelli, M.; Solforosi, L.; Clementi, M.; Burioni, R. Neutralization Interfering Antibodies: A “Novel” Example of Humoral Immune Dysfunction Facilitating Viral Escape? Viruses 2012, 4, 1731-1752.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert