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A correction was published on 5 October 2012, see Viruses 2012, 4(10), 2014-2015.

Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1711-1730; doi:10.3390/v4091711
Review

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants?

1
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Received: 31 August 2012; in revised form: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 21 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3083 KB, uploaded 24 September 2012]
Abstract: HIV-1 causes a chronic infection in humans that is characterized by high plasma viremia, progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and severe immunodeficiency resulting in opportunistic disease and AIDS. Viral persistence is mediated in part by the ability of the Nef protein to down-regulate HLA molecules on the infected cell surface, thereby allowing HIV-1 to evade recognition by antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes. Extensive research has been conducted on Nef to determine protein domains that are required for its immune evasion activities and to identify critical cellular co-factors, and our mechanistic understanding of this process is becoming more complete. This review highlights our current knowledge of Nef-mediated HLA class I down-regulation and places this work in the context of naturally occurring sequence variation in this protein. We argue that efforts to fully understand the critical role of Nef for HIV-1 pathogenesis will require greater analysis of patient-derived sequences to elucidate subtle differences in immune evasion activity that may alter clinical outcome.
Keywords: HIV-1; Nef; immune evasion; HLA class I; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; viral sequence diversity; host immune selection pressure HIV-1; Nef; immune evasion; HLA class I; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; viral sequence diversity; host immune selection pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mwimanzi, P.; Markle, T.J.; Ueno, T.; Brockman, M.A. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? Viruses 2012, 4, 1711-1730.

AMA Style

Mwimanzi P, Markle TJ, Ueno T, Brockman MA. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1711-1730.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mwimanzi, Philip; Markle, Tristan J.; Ueno, Takamasa; Brockman, Mark A. 2012. "Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants?" Viruses 4, no. 9: 1711-1730.


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