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Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1438-1476; doi:10.3390/v4091438
Review

Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

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Received: 3 July 2012; in revised form: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
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Abstract: The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies.
Keywords: influenza; evasion; innate immunity; adaptive immunity influenza; evasion; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

van de Sandt, C.E.; Kreijtz, J.H.C.M.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses. Viruses 2012, 4, 1438-1476.

AMA Style

van de Sandt CE, Kreijtz JHCM, Rimmelzwaan GF. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses. Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1438-1476.

Chicago/Turabian Style

van de Sandt, Carolien E.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F. 2012. "Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses." Viruses 4, no. 9: 1438-1476.



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