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MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes
Interdepartmental Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 28 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Abstract: In contrast to activated CD4+ T cells and differentiated macrophages, resting CD4+ T cells and monocytes are non-permissive for HIV-1 replication. The mediators which regulate the resting or quiescent phenotype are often actively involved in the restriction of viral replication and the establishment and maintenance of viral latency. Recently, certain microRNAs which are highly expressed in resting cells have been implicated in this capacity, inhibiting the expression of cellular proteins that are also viral co-factors; following activation these microRNAs exhibit decreased expression, while their targets are correspondingly up-regulated, contributing to a favorable milieu for virus replication. Other microRNAs exhibiting a similar expression pattern in resting and activated cells have been shown to directly target the HIV-1 genome. In this review we will discuss the resting state and the causes behind viral restriction in resting cells, with emphasis on the role of microRNAs.
Keywords: miRNAs; HIV; CD4+ T cells; monocytes/macrophages
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chiang, K.; Rice, A.P. MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes. Viruses 2012, 4, 1390-1409.
Chiang K, Rice AP. MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes. Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1390-1409.
Chiang, Karen; Rice, Andrew P. 2012. "MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes." Viruses 4, no. 9: 1390-1409.