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Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII)
Microbiology and Virology Unit, “Vita-Salute” San Raffaele University, via Olgettina 58, Milan 20132, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2012; in revised form: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Abstract: The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the induction of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) and the possible establishment of related lymphoproliferative disorders, such as B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), is well ascertained. However, the molecular pathways involved and the factors predisposing to the development of these HCV-related extrahepatic complications deserve further consideration and clarification. To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. In this review, we will analyze the host and viral factors taking part in the development of MCII in order to give a general outlook of the molecular mechanisms implicated.
Keywords: hepatitis C virus (HCV); type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII); B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL); viral and host factors
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Sautto, G.; Mancini, N.; Clementi, M.; Burioni, R. Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII). Viruses 2012, 4, 2924-2944.
Sautto G, Mancini N, Clementi M, Burioni R. Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII). Viruses. 2012; 4(11):2924-2944.
Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto. 2012. "Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII)." Viruses 4, no. 11: 2924-2944.