Next Article in Journal
Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII)
Next Article in Special Issue
Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies
Previous Article in Journal
Sharka: The Past, The Present and The Future
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Genomics of Korean Infectious Bronchitis Viruses (IBVs) and an Animal Model to Evaluate Pathogenicity of IBVs to the Reproductive Organs
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2902-2923; doi:10.3390/v4112902
Review

The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

1,†
 and 2,†,*
1 Anatomy Cluster, Department of Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Modderdam Road, Bellville, Western Cape, 7535, South Africa 2 Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Modderdam Road, Bellville, Western Cape, 7535, South Africa These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives and Challenges in Coronavirus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [465 KB, uploaded 7 November 2012]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies.
Keywords: SARS-coronavirus; accessory proteins; open reading frames; respiratory disease SARS-coronavirus; accessory proteins; open reading frames; respiratory disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

McBride, R.; Fielding, B.C. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis. Viruses 2012, 4, 2902-2923.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert