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dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection
Unit Hepacivirus and Innate Immunity, Department Virology, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2012; in revised form: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Abstract: The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN)‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2a). As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2a kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-kB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2a-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages.
Keywords: PKR; dsRNA; IFN; eIF2a; PRR; HCV; MAVS; ISG15; RIG-I
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MDPI and ACS Style
Dabo, S.; Meurs, E.F. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection. Viruses 2012, 4, 2598-2635.
Dabo S, Meurs EF. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection. Viruses. 2012; 4(11):2598-2635.
Dabo, Stéphanie; Meurs, Eliane F. 2012. "dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection." Viruses 4, no. 11: 2598-2635.