Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2945-2972; doi:10.3390/v4112945

Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein

1email, 2email and 3,* email
Received: 5 September 2012; in revised form: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulation of Apoptosis by Viral Infection)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Worldwide, an estimated 350 million people are chronically infected with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV); chronic infection with HBV is associated with the development of severe liver diseases including hepatitis and cirrhosis. Individuals who are chronically infected with HBV also have a significantly higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than uninfected individuals. The HBV X protein (HBx) is a key regulatory HBV protein that is important for HBV replication, and likely plays a cofactor role in the development of HCC in chronically HBV-infected individuals. Although some of the functions of HBx that may contribute to the development of HCC have been characterized, many HBx activities, and their putative roles during the development of HBV-associated HCC, remain incompletely understood. HBx is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria of HBV‑infected hepatocytes. HBx regulates numerous cellular signal transduction pathways and transcription factors as well as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In this review, we will summarize reports in which the impact of HBx expression on cellular apoptotic pathways has been analyzed. Although various effects of HBx on apoptotic pathways have been observed in different model systems, studies of HBx activities in biologically relevant hepatocyte systems have begun to clarify apoptotic effects of HBx and suggest mechanisms that could link HBx modulation of apoptotic pathways to the development of HBV-associated HCC.
Keywords: hepatitis B virus; HBx protein; hepatocellular carcinoma; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rawat, S.; Clippinger, A.J.; Bouchard, M.J. Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein. Viruses 2012, 4, 2945-2972.

AMA Style

Rawat S, Clippinger AJ, Bouchard MJ. Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein. Viruses. 2012; 4(11):2945-2972.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rawat, Siddhartha; Clippinger, Amy J.; Bouchard, Michael J. 2012. "Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein." Viruses 4, no. 11: 2945-2972.

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