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Viruses, Volume 4, Issue 1 (January 2012), Pages 1-199

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Role of Humoral Innate Immunity in Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 1-27; doi:10.3390/v4010001
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 21 December 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) causes chronic disease in approximately 80% of cases, resulting in chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. Current treatments are not completely effective, and a vaccine has yet to be developed. Spontaneous resolution of infection is associated with effective host
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Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) causes chronic disease in approximately 80% of cases, resulting in chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. Current treatments are not completely effective, and a vaccine has yet to be developed. Spontaneous resolution of infection is associated with effective host adaptive immunity to HCV, including production of both HCV-specific T cells and neutralizing antibodies. However, the supporting role of soluble innate factors in protection against HCV is less well understood. The innate immune system provides an immediate line of defense against infections, triggering inflammation and playing a critical role in activating adaptive immunity. Innate immunity comprises both cellular and humoral components, the humoral arm consisting of pattern recognition molecules such as complement C1q, collectins and ficolins. These molecules activate the complement cascade, neutralize pathogens, and recruit antigen presenting cells. Here we review the current understanding of anti-viral components of the humoral innate immune system that play a similar role to antibodies, describing their role in immunity to HCV and their potential contribution to HCV pathogenesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivirus 2
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 28-61; doi:10.3390/v4010028
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 30 December 2011 / Accepted: 31 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2) was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of
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The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2) was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Viruses Expressing Indicator Proteins and Antiviral Cytokines
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 102-116; doi:10.3390/v4010102
Received: 23 December 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 » IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Arteriviruses and Coronaviruses)
Open AccessArticle The Development and Application of a Dot-ELISA Assay for Diagnosis of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Disease in the Field
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 167-183; doi:10.3390/v4010167
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outbreaks of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have caused significant crop losses in southern China in recent years, especially in 2010. There are no effective, quick and practicable methods for the diagnosis of rice dwarf disease that can be used in
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Outbreaks of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have caused significant crop losses in southern China in recent years, especially in 2010. There are no effective, quick and practicable methods for the diagnosis of rice dwarf disease that can be used in the field. Traditional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology is accurate but requires expensive reagents and instruments, as well as complex procedures that limit its applicability for field tests. To develop a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, a rapid dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) method was developed for testing rice plants infected by SRBSDV. Based on anti-SRBSDV rabbit antiserum, this new dot-ELISA was highly reliable, sensitive and specific toward SRBSDV. The accuracy of two blotting media, polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (PVDF membrane) and nitrocellulose filter membrane (NC membrane), was compared. In order to facilitate the on-site diagnosis, three county laboratories were established in Shidian (Yunnan province), Jianghua (Hunan Province) and Libo (Guizhou province). Suspected rice cases from Shidian, Yuanjiang and Malipo in Yunnan province were tested and some determined to be positive for SRBSDV by the dot-ELISA and confirmed by the One Step RT-PCR method. To date, hundreds of suspected rice samples collected from 61 districts in southwestern China have been tested, among which 55 districts were found to have rice crops infected by SRBSDV. Furthermore, the test results in the county laboratories showed that Libo, Dehong (suspected samples were sent to Shidian) and Jianghua were experiencing a current SRBSDV outbreak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Construction and Testing of orfA +/- FIV Reporter Viruses
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 184-199; doi:10.3390/v4010184
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 15 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single cycle reporter viruses that preserve the majority of the HIV-1 genome, long terminal repeat-promoted transcription and Rev-dependent structural protein expression are useful for investigating the viral life cycle. Reporter viruses that encode the viral proteins in cis in this way have been
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Single cycle reporter viruses that preserve the majority of the HIV-1 genome, long terminal repeat-promoted transcription and Rev-dependent structural protein expression are useful for investigating the viral life cycle. Reporter viruses that encode the viral proteins in cis in this way have been lacking for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), where the field has used genetically minimized transfer vectors with viral proteins supplied in trans. Here we report construction and use of a panel of single cycle FIV reporter viruses that express fluorescent protein markers. The viruses can be produced to high titer using human cell transfection and can transduce diverse target cells. To illustrate utility, we tested versions that are (+) and (-) for OrfA, an FIV accessory protein required for replication in primary lymphocytes and previously implicated in down-regulation of the primary FIV entry receptor CD134. We observed CD134 down-regulation after infection with or without OrfA, and equivalent virion production as well. These results suggest a role for FIV proteins besides Env or OrfA in CD134 down-regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Retroviruses)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 62-82; doi:10.3390/v4010062
Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 18 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 9 January 2012
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they
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The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Dengue Virus Research)
Open AccessReview The Curious Case of Arenavirus Entry, and Its Inhibition
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 83-101; doi:10.3390/v4010083
Received: 28 October 2011 / Revised: 7 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 13 January 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry
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Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein complex, GPC. The virion is endocytosed on binding to a cell-surface receptor, and membrane fusion is initiated in response to physiological acidification of the endosome. As with other class I virus fusion proteins, GPC-mediated membrane fusion is promoted through a regulated sequence of conformational changes leading to formation of the classical postfusion trimer-of-hairpins structure. GPC is, however, unique among the class I fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP) as a third subunit, in addition to the canonical receptor-binding and fusion proteins. We will review the curious properties of the tripartite GPC complex and describe evidence that SSP interacts with the fusion subunit to modulate pH-induced activation of membrane fusion. This unusual solution to maintaining the metastable prefusion state of GPC on the virion and activating the class I fusion cascade at acidic pH provides novel targets for antiviral intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion)
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Open AccessReview Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 117-139; doi:10.3390/v4010117
Received: 25 November 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (1983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH
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Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion)
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Open AccessReview Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 140-166; doi:10.3390/v4010140
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 21 December 2011 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response
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Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles)

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