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Viruses 2011, 3(7), 1112-1130; doi:10.3390/v3071112
Review

Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response

1
,
2
 and
2,3,*
1 Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine-University, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany 2 Research Group “Host-Pathogen Interactions”, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen 63225, Germany 3 Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2011 / Revised: 26 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 11 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Innate Immunity)
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Abstract

Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology “omics” methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus (WNV), and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.
Keywords: antiviral; innate responses; systems-biology antiviral; innate responses; systems-biology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Münk, C.; Sommer, A.F.; König, R. Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response. Viruses 2011, 3, 1112-1130.

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