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Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Department of Medicine, Pathology, and Molecular Microbiology, Division of Biology and Biological Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8069, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2011; in revised form: 1 July 2011 / Accepted: 2 July 2011 / Published: 12 July 2011
Abstract: Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.
Keywords: HTLV-1; human T-lymphotropic virus type-1; transmission; replication; determinants; animal models
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lairmore, M.D.; Anupam, R.; Bowden, N.; Haines, R.; Haynes II, R.A.H.; Ratner, L.; Green, P.L. Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread. Viruses 2011, 3, 1131-1165.
Lairmore MD, Anupam R, Bowden N, Haines R, Haynes II RAH, Ratner L, Green PL. Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread. Viruses. 2011; 3(7):1131-1165.
Lairmore, Michael D.; Anupam, Rajaneesh; Bowden, Nadine; Haines, Robyn; Haynes II, Rashade A. H.; Ratner, Lee; Green, Patrick L. 2011. "Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread." Viruses 3, no. 7: 1131-1165.