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Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection
Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St. Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Received: 24 May 2011; in revised form: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Abstract: As an early response to infection, cells induce a profile of the early inflammatory proteins including antiviral cytokines and chemokines. Two families of transcriptional factors play a major role in the transcriptional activation of the early inflammatory genes: The well-characterized family of NFkB factors and the family of interferon regulatory factors (IRF). The IRFs play a critical role in the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and chemokine genes, as well as genes mediating antiviral, antibacterial, and inflammatory responses. Type I IFNs represent critical components of innate antiviral immunity. These proteins not only exert direct antiviral effects, but also induce maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and enhance functions of NK, T and B cells, and macrophages. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to the innate antiviral response with a focus on its role in the regulation of HIV-1 infection and pathogenicity. We would like this review to be both historical and a future perspective.
Keywords: virus; HIV-1; interferon; IRF; innate immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pitha, P.M. Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection. Viruses 2011, 3, 1179-1203.
Pitha PM. Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection. Viruses. 2011; 3(7):1179-1203.
Pitha, Paula M. 2011. "Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection." Viruses 3, no. 7: 1179-1203.