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Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response
Viruses 2011, 3(7), 1179-1203; doi:10.3390/v3071179

Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection

Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Innate Immunity)
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Abstract: As an early response to infection, cells induce a profile of the early inflammatory proteins including antiviral cytokines and chemokines. Two families of transcriptional factors play a major role in the transcriptional activation of the early inflammatory genes: The well-characterized family of NFkB factors and the family of interferon regulatory factors (IRF). The IRFs play a critical role in the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and chemokine genes, as well as genes mediating antiviral, antibacterial, and inflammatory responses. Type I IFNs represent critical components of innate antiviral immunity. These proteins not only exert direct antiviral effects, but also induce maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and enhance functions of NK, T and B cells, and macrophages. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to the innate antiviral response with a focus on its role in the regulation of HIV-1 infection and pathogenicity. We would like this review to be both historical and a future perspective.
Keywords: virus; HIV-1; interferon; IRF; innate immune response virus; HIV-1; interferon; IRF; innate immune response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pitha, P.M. Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection. Viruses 2011, 3, 1179-1203.

AMA Style

Pitha PM. Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection. Viruses. 2011; 3(7):1179-1203.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pitha, Paula M. 2011. "Innate Antiviral Response: Role in HIV-1 Infection." Viruses 3, no. 7: 1179-1203.

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