Viruses 2011, 3(7), 1091-1111; doi:10.3390/v3071091
Review

The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

email and * email
Received: 14 June 2011; in revised form: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 24 June 2011 / Published: 8 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Innate Immunity)
Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 8 July 2011]
Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.
Keywords: HIV-1; NK cells; Vpr; Vpu; Nef; NKG2D; NTB-A; PLC-γ
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Sowrirajan, B.; Barker, E. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins. Viruses 2011, 3, 1091-1111.

AMA Style

Sowrirajan B, Barker E. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins. Viruses. 2011; 3(7):1091-1111.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sowrirajan, Bharatwaj; Barker, Edward. 2011. "The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins." Viruses 3, no. 7: 1091-1111.


Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert