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Implications of the Nucleocapsid and the Microenvironment in Retroviral Reverse Transcription
CPBS, UMR5236 CNRS, UMI, 4 bd Henri IV, 34965 Montpellier, France
LaboRetro Unité de Virologie humaine INSERM #758, IFR128, ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2010; in revised form: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 1 April 2010 / Published: 2 April 2010
Abstract: This mini-review summarizes the process of reverse-transcription, an obligatory step in retrovirus replication during which the retroviral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) copies the single-stranded genomic RNA to generate the double-stranded viral DNA while degrading the genomic RNA via its associated RNase H activity. The hybridization of complementary viral sequences by the nucleocapsid protein (NC) receives a special focus, since it acts to chaperone the strand transfers obligatory for synthesis of the complete viral DNA and flanking long terminal repeats (LTR). Since the physiological microenvironment can impact on reverse-transcription, this mini-review also focuses on factors present in the intra-cellular or extra-cellular milieu that can drastically influence both the timing and the activity of reverse-transcription and hence virus infectivity.
Keywords: reverse transcriptase; nucleocapsid protein; genomic RNA; viral DNA; strand transfers; SEVI
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Mougel, M.; Cimarelli, A.; Darlix, J.-L. Implications of the Nucleocapsid and the Microenvironment in Retroviral Reverse Transcription. Viruses 2010, 2, 939-960.
Mougel M, Cimarelli A, Darlix J-L. Implications of the Nucleocapsid and the Microenvironment in Retroviral Reverse Transcription. Viruses. 2010; 2(4):939-960.
Mougel, Marylène; Cimarelli, Andrea; Darlix, Jean-Luc. 2010. "Implications of the Nucleocapsid and the Microenvironment in Retroviral Reverse Transcription." Viruses 2, no. 4: 939-960.