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Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1190-1203; doi:10.3390/v1031190
Review

Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response

Received: 2 October 2009; in revised form: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
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Abstract: Hendra and Nipah virus, which constitute the genus Henipavirus, are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe disease and mortality in humans since their emergence in the late 1990s. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, their ability to evade the host interferon (IFN) response is conferred by the P gene. The henipavirus P gene encodes four proteins; the P, V, W and C proteins, which have all been described to inhibit the antiviral response. Further studies have revealed that these proteins have overlapping but unique properties which enable the virus to block multiple signaling pathways in the IFN response. The best characterized of these is the JAK-STAT signaling pathway which is targeted by the P, V and W proteins via an interaction with the transcription factor STAT1. In addition the V and W proteins can both limit virus-induced induction of IFN but they appear to do this via distinct mechanisms that rely on unique sequences in their C-terminal domains. The ability to generate recombinant Nipah viruses now gives us the opportunity to determine the precise role for each of these proteins and address their contribution to pathogenicity. Additionally, the question of whether these multiple anti-IFN strategies are all active in the different mammalian hosts for henipaviruses, particularly the fruit bat reservoir, warrants further exploration.
Keywords: Nipah virus (NiV); Hendra virus (HeV); zoonotic virus; interferon (IFN); STAT1; mda-5; nuclear localization Nipah virus (NiV); Hendra virus (HeV); zoonotic virus; interferon (IFN); STAT1; mda-5; nuclear localization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaw, M.L. Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response. Viruses 2009, 1, 1190-1203.

AMA Style

Shaw ML. Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):1190-1203.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaw, Megan L. 2009. "Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response." Viruses 1, no. 3: 1190-1203.



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