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All Known Human Rhinovirus Species Are Present in Sputum Specimens of Military Recruits During Respiratory Infection
Gastrointestinal Infections Unit, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Medical Microbiology, Institute of Diagnostics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kainuu Central Hospital, Kajaani, Finland
Centre for Military Medicine, Finnish Defence Forces, Lahti, Finland
Child and Adolescent Health and Wellbeing Unit, Lifecourse and Services Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Oulu, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2009; in revised form: 8 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Abstract: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are known to cause common cold as well as more complicated respiratory infections. HRV species -A, -B and -C have all been associated with lower respiratory infections and exacerbations of asthma. However, the type distribution of strains connected to different kinds of lower respiratory conditions is not clearly known. We have analysed the presence of HRV in sputum specimens derived from military recruits with and without pre-diagnosed asthma at times of acute respiratory infection (CIAS Study, 2004-2005). The analysis was performed with HRV and HEV real-time RT-PCR assays. Subsequently we studied type distribution of HRV strains by genetic typing in the VP4/VP2 genomic region. In total 146 (38.8%) specimens were HRV-positive and 36 (9.3%) HEV-positive. No difference was found in HRV detection between the asthmatic vs. non-asthmatic patients. Most of the genetically typed strains, 18 (62.1%), belonged to HRV-A, while HRV-B strains constituted five (17.2%) of the HRV-positive strains. HRV-C strain was typed four times from the HRV-positive cases and a HEV-D strain twice. We further typed six HEV positive strains in the partial VP1 region. Three of these belonged to HRV-A and three to HEV-D. HRV-A strains were discovered throughout the study period, while HRV-C strains originated from winter and spring specimens. Interestingly, four out of five typed HRV-B strains originated from the summer season specimens.
Keywords: human rhinovirus; genetic distribution; adult; asthma
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The article by C. Savolainen-Kopra et al. was first published on 4 December 2009. The Editorial Office made a mistake by uploading a non-edited version of the manuscript. The edited, final article has been re-uploaded on 8 Decmber 2009. The original, unedited version is provided for reference only.
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Savolainen-Kopra, C.; Blomqvist, S.; Kaijalainen, S.; Jounio, U.; Juvonen, R.; Peitso, A.; Saukkoriipi, A.; Vainio, O.; Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M. All Known Human Rhinovirus Species Are Present in Sputum Specimens of Military Recruits During Respiratory Infection. Viruses 2009, 1, 1178-1189.
Savolainen-Kopra C, Blomqvist S, Kaijalainen S, Jounio U, Juvonen R, Peitso A, Saukkoriipi A, Vainio O, Hovi T, Roivainen M. All Known Human Rhinovirus Species Are Present in Sputum Specimens of Military Recruits During Respiratory Infection. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):1178-1189.
Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Blomqvist, Soile; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Jounio, Ulla; Juvonen, Raija; Peitso, Ari; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Vainio, Olli; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja. 2009. "All Known Human Rhinovirus Species Are Present in Sputum Specimens of Military Recruits During Respiratory Infection." Viruses 1, no. 3: 1178-1189.