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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1889-1900; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051889
Article

Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City

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Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 23 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Abstract: The application of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of PAH measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 260) in New York City were normalized to the cancer and mutagen potency equivalent factor of BaP (BaP = 1). Data are presented as carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ) and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) for the sum of 8 PAH (∑8PAH; MW ³ 228) and individual PAH and compared across heating versus nonheating seasons. Results show that heating compared to nonheating season was associated significantly with higher (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH both indoors and outdoors (p < 0.001). Outdoor (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH were significantly higher than the corresponding indoor measures during the heating season (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that at levels encountered in New York City air, especially during the heating season, residential exposure to PAH may pose an increased risk of cancer and mutation.
Keywords: risk assessment; PAH; BaP-equivalents; TEF; MEF; heating season; indoor; outdoor; and children risk assessment; PAH; BaP-equivalents; TEF; MEF; heating season; indoor; outdoor; and children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, K.H.; Yan, B.; Chillrud, S.N.; Perera, F.P.; Whyatt, R.; Camann, D.; Kinney, P.L.; Miller, R.L. Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1889-1900.

AMA Style

Jung KH, Yan B, Chillrud SN, Perera FP, Whyatt R, Camann D, Kinney PL, Miller RL. Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(5):1889-1900.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Kyung Hwa; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin; Camann, David; Kinney, Patrick L.; Miller, Rachel L. 2010. "Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 5: 1889-1900.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert