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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1889-1900; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051889
Article

Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City

1
, 2
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 4
, 3
 and 1,3,*
1 Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, PH8E, 630 W. 168 St. New York, NY 10032, USA 2 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Rt, 9W Palisades, NY 10964, USA 3 Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, 60 Haven Ave., B-1 New York, NY 10032, USA 4 Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 23 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Abstract

The application of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of PAH measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 260) in New York City were normalized to the cancer and mutagen potency equivalent factor of BaP (BaP = 1). Data are presented as carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ) and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) for the sum of 8 PAH (∑8PAH; MW ³ 228) and individual PAH and compared across heating versus nonheating seasons. Results show that heating compared to nonheating season was associated significantly with higher (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH both indoors and outdoors (p < 0.001). Outdoor (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH were significantly higher than the corresponding indoor measures during the heating season (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that at levels encountered in New York City air, especially during the heating season, residential exposure to PAH may pose an increased risk of cancer and mutation.
Keywords: risk assessment; PAH; BaP-equivalents; TEF; MEF; heating season; indoor; outdoor; and children risk assessment; PAH; BaP-equivalents; TEF; MEF; heating season; indoor; outdoor; and children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Jung, K.H.; Yan, B.; Chillrud, S.N.; Perera, F.P.; Whyatt, R.; Camann, D.; Kinney, P.L.; Miller, R.L. Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1889-1900.

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