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Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities
Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Department of Environmental Engineering, 700 University Blvd. MSC 213, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA
The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 19308 416 Yates St. Suite 425, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2010; in revised form: 3 April 2010 / Accepted: 14 April 2010 / Published: 16 April 2010
Abstract: Cooking emissions show a strong dependence on cooking styles and parameters. Measurements of the average ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration, PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations emitted by cooking activities ranged from 1.34 × 104 to 6.04 × 105 particles/cm3, 10.0 to 230.9 μg/m3 and 0.1 to 0.8 μg/m3, respectively. Lower UFP concentrations were observed during boiling, while higher levels were emitted during frying. The highest UFP concentrations were observed when using a gas stove at high temperature with the kitchen exhaust fan turned off. The observed UFP profiles were similar in the kitchen and in another room, with a lag of approximately 10 min.
Keywords: cooking emissions; cooking style; cooking parameters; spatial profile
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, Q.; Gangupomu, R.H.; Ramirez, D.; Zhu, Y. Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1744-1759.
Zhang Q, Gangupomu RH, Ramirez D, Zhu Y. Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(4):1744-1759.
Zhang, Qunfang; Gangupomu, Roja H.; Ramirez, David; Zhu, Yifang. 2010. "Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 4: 1744-1759.