Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2008), Pages 1-85

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Fourth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 1-3; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010001
Published: 30 March 2008
PDF Full-text (30 KB) | HTML Full-text

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Gene-Environment Interactions in the Development of Complex Disease Phenotypes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 4-11; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010004
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (84 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
The lack of knowledge about the earliest events in disease development is due to the multi-factorial nature of disease risk. This information gap is the consequence of the lack of appreciation for the fact that most diseases arise from the complex interactions between
[...] Read more.
The lack of knowledge about the earliest events in disease development is due to the multi-factorial nature of disease risk. This information gap is the consequence of the lack of appreciation for the fact that most diseases arise from the complex interactions between genes and the environment as a function of the age or stage of development of the individual. Whether an environmental exposure causes illness or not is dependent on the efficiency of the so-called “environmental response machinery” (i.e., the complex of metabolic pathways that can modulate response to environmental perturbations) that one has inherited. Thus, elucidating the causes of most chronic diseases will require an understanding of both the genetic and environmental contribution to their etiology. Unfortunately, the exploration of the relationship between genes and the environment has been hampered in the past by the limited knowledge of the human genome, and by the inclination of scientists to study disease development using experimental models that consider exposure to a single environmental agent. Rarely in the past were interactions between multiple genes or between genes and environmental agents considered in studies of human disease etiology. The most critical issue is how to relate exposure-disease association studies to pathways and mechanisms. To understand how genes and environmental factors interact to perturb biological pathways to cause injury or disease, scientists will need tools with the capacity to monitor the global expression of thousands of genes, proteins and metabolites simultaneously. The generation of such data in multiple species can be used to identify conserved and functionally significant genes and pathways involved in geneenvironment interactions. Ultimately, it is this knowledge that will be used to guide agencies such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in decisions regarding biomedical research funding and policy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 12-25; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010012
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial
[...] Read more.
We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. Full article
Open AccessArticle UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 26-31; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010026
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (101 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been
[...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA) and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC) by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA), 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA), 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA), 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA), 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA), 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA), 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA), BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol), 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC), 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC), and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm) in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP), a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene on Intra-testicular Function in F-344 Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 32-40; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010032
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive risk associated with exposure of adult male Fisher-344 (F-344) rats to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust fumes and industrial emissions. Rats were assigned randomly to
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive risk associated with exposure of adult male Fisher-344 (F-344) rats to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust fumes and industrial emissions. Rats were assigned randomly to a treatment or control group. Treatment consisted of exposure of rats via nose-only inhalation to 75μg BaP/m3, 4 hours daily for 60 days, while control animals were unexposed (UNC). Blood samples were collected immediately on day 60 of exposures (time 0) and subsequently at 24, 48, and 72 hours, to assess the effect of exposures to BaP on plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations. Mean testis weight, total weight of tubules and total tubular length per paired testes were reduced 33% (P< 0.025), 27% (P < 0.01) and 39%, respectively in exposed rats (P < 0.01) compared with UNC rats. The number of homogenization -resistant spermatids was significantly reduced in BaP-exposed versus UNC rats. Plasma testosterone and intra-testicular testosterone (ITT) concentrations were significantly decreased by BaP compared with those of UNC rats. The decreases in circulating plasma testosterone were accompanied by concomitant increases in plasma LH concentrations in BaP-exposed versus control rats (P < 0.05). These data suggest that 60 days exposure to inhaled BaP contribute to reduced testicular endocrine and spermatogenic functions in exposed rats. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 41-48; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010041
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 μg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Method to Model Season of Birth as a Surrogate Environmental Risk Factor for Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 49-53; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010049
Received: 9 September 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental exposures, including some that vary seasonally, may play a role in the development of many types of childhood diseases such as cancer. Those observed in children are unique in that the relevant period of exposure is inherently limited or perhaps even specific
[...] Read more.
Environmental exposures, including some that vary seasonally, may play a role in the development of many types of childhood diseases such as cancer. Those observed in children are unique in that the relevant period of exposure is inherently limited or perhaps even specific to a very short window during prenatal development or early infancy. As such, researchers have investigated whether specific childhood cancers are associated with season of birth. Typically a basic method for analysis has been used, for example categorization of births into one of four seasons, followed by simple comparisons between categories such as via logistic regression, to obtain odds ratios (ORs), confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values. In this paper we present an alternative method, based upon an iterative trigonometric logistic regression model used to analyze the cyclic nature of birth dates related to disease occurrence. Disease birth-date results are presented using a sinusoidal graph with a peak date of relative risk and a single p-value that tests whether an overall seasonal association is present. An OR and CI comparing children born in the 3-month period around the peak to the symmetrically opposite 3-month period also can be obtained. Advantages of this derivative-free method include ease of use, increased statistical power to detect associations, and the ability to avoid potentially arbitrary, subjective demarcation of seasons. Full article
Open AccessArticle Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 54-67; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010054
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change
[...] Read more.
This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 68-75; doi:10.3390/ijerph5020068
Received: 30 October 2007 / Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in
[...] Read more.
Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 76-85; doi:10.3390/ijerph5020076
Received: 18 January 2008 / Accepted: 21 March 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text
Abstract
The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens
[...] Read more.
The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm-2 day-1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm-2 day-1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm-2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm-2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it was commonly observed that higher pollen counts existed in the outlying areas. That is, the pollen counts in an urban area were confirmed to be at a lower level. As for the indoor dispersion of pollens, two cases were evaluated. At the lobby of the main building of Kyoritsu Women’s University, the averaged ratio of the indoor to the outdoor pollen count is 4.1%. Another case was at the hospital building of a medical school. The pollen dispersion in the indoor environment was also observed to be low. It was concluded that the indoor pollen would be mainly carried from the outer environment by the movement of air. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top