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UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Department of Pharmacology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR
Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 365067, San Juan, Puerto Rico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2007; Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA) and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC) by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA), 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA), 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA), 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA), 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA), 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA), 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA), BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol), 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC), 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC), and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm) in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP), a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation.
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Yin, J.-J.; Xia, Q.; Cherng, S.-H.; Tang, I.-W.; Fu, P.P.; Lin, G.; Yu, H.; Sáenz, D.H. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 26-31.
Yin J-J, Xia Q, Cherng S-H, Tang I-W, Fu PP, Lin G, Yu H, Sáenz DH. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(1):26-31.
Yin, Jun-Jie; Xia, Qingsu; Cherng, Shu-Hui; Tang, I-Wah; Fu, Peter P.; Lin, Ge; Yu, Hongtao; Sáenz, Diógenes H. 2008. "UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 1: 26-31.