Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(1), 12-25; doi:10.3390/ijerph5010012
Article

Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment

1 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, the University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 USA 2 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, TX 76101, USA 3 Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2007; Accepted: 29 February 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
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Abstract: We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates.
Keywords: Cytotoxicity; IL-6; IL-8; ROS; multiwall carbon nanotubes; soot nano-PM; TEM

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soto, K.F.; Murr, L.E.; Garza, K.M. Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 12-25.

AMA Style

Soto KF, Murr LE, Garza KM. Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(1):12-25.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soto, K. F.; Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M. 2008. "Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 1: 12-25.

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