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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 2, Issue 3 (December 2005), Pages 374-483

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 374-384; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030001
Received: 12 December 2005 / Accepted: 4 April 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium
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A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA); a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 385-393; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030002
Received: 13 September 2005 / Accepted: 25 October 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as
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An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle The In-Home Environment and Household Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of Informal Urban Settlements in Northern México
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 394-402; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030003
Received: 26 July 2005 / Accepted: 20 December 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
People living in poverty make up nearly half of the global population and a large proportion of these individuals inhabit cities, living in informal settlements. However, only limited research on in-home environmental exposures and the associated health effects in these communities is available.
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People living in poverty make up nearly half of the global population and a large proportion of these individuals inhabit cities, living in informal settlements. However, only limited research on in-home environmental exposures and the associated health effects in these communities is available. This research investigates the home environment in unplanned settlements of a rapidly growing city on the U.S.-México border and its impact on the health of households with children under 12 years of age. A cross-sectional design was used to assess household exposures and health outcomes at the household level. A total of 202 households were selected from two informal settlements in the peri-urban region of Ciudad Juárez, México. The following variables were significantly associated with the report of at least one household member experiencing a health outcome in a two week period. Allergies were positively associated with insecticide use inside the home (adjusted Relative Odds (RO), 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-6.3). Respiratory problems were associated with households using a wood burning stove vs. a gas stove (adjusted RO, 5.64; 95% CI, 1.1-27.9). Diarrhea was negatively associated with presence of a flush toilet in the home (adjusted RO, 0.22; 95% CI,0.1-0.6). Finally, eye irritations were positively associated with indoor tobacco smoke (adjusted RO, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5). This research highlights exposures associated with poor living conditions in informal settlements and their associations with detrimental effects on health. More efforts should be made to understand the dynamics of poor urban environments including the health effects of exposures linked with poor housing conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ozone Enhances Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP)-Induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells through Activation of Nuclear Factors- κB (NF-κB) and IL-6 (NF-IL6)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 403-410; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030004
Received: 11 October 2005 / Accepted: 21 December 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological
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Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr) significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05) as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 μg/ml x 4 hr) alone (31 ± 3 pg/ml, n = 6), or cultures exposed to purified air (24 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 6). The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L.) Extracts and H2O2
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 411-419; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030005
Received: 10 June 2005 / Accepted: 12 December 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Black seed (N. Sativa L) is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has
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Black seed (N. Sativa L) is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example) to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE) and ethanol (AE) extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3). In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro) in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer chemoprevention and/or treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Model of HIV/AIDS Population of Agra Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 420-429; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030006
Received: 31 May 2005 / Accepted: 14 November 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is spreading rapidly in all regions of the world. But in India it is only 20 years old. Within this short period it has emerged as one of the most serious public health problems
[...] Read more.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is spreading rapidly in all regions of the world. But in India it is only 20 years old. Within this short period it has emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in the country, which greatly affect the socio-economical growth. The HIV problem is very complex and ill defined from the modeling point of view. Keeping in the view the complexities of the HIV infection and its transmission, it is difficult to make exact estimates of HIV prevalence. It is more so in the Indian context, with its typical and varied cultural characteristics, and its traditions and values with special reference to sex related risk behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a good model which will help in making exact estimates of HIV prevalence that may be used for planning HIV / AIDS prevention and control programs. In this paper Neuro-Fuzzy approach has been used to develop dynamic model of HIV population of Agra region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 442-446; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030008
Received: 2 May 2005 / Accepted: 19 October 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free chlorine and held at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for up to 28
[...] Read more.
We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free chlorine and held at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for up to 28 days. Our aim was to determine which of these two organisms (coliphage or E. coli) was better at indicating norovirus survival under the conditions of the experiment. There was a relatively rapid decline of FCV and E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water and both organisms were undetectable within one day irrespective of the temperature. In contrast, FRNA phage survived for 7 to 14 days in 50 ppm chlorine treated water at all temperatures. All organisms survived for 28 days in tap water at 4°C, but FCV was undetectable on day 21 and day 7 at 25°C and 37°C, respectively. Greater survival of FRNA phage compared to E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water suggests that these organisms should be further investigated as indicators of norovirus in depurated shellfish, sanitized produce, and treated wastewater which are all subject to high-level chlorine treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sorption Kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp on Two Soil Layers Associated with a Groundwater Table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 447-455; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030009
Received: 4 October 2004 / Accepted: 11 April 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A laboratory study has been carried out on two soil layers (HX and HY) located above a groundwater table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa). The main purpose of this study was to assess the retention potential or sorption kinetics of Escherichia coli and
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A laboratory study has been carried out on two soil layers (HX and HY) located above a groundwater table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa). The main purpose of this study was to assess the retention potential or sorption kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. on these soil layers. For both soil layers, bacterial sorption on soil particles occurred rapidly during the first 30 minutes of incubation of bacteria and soil particles in aqueous media, and increased gradually with incubation time up to 300 min. In some cases, adsorption rates fluctuated after 30 min of incubation, probably due to bacterial cell sorption to and de-sorption from soil particles. Using Freundlich isotherms, it was noted that adsorption coefficient related to adsorption capacity varied from 19 to 4026 E. coli.mg-1 of soil, and from 506 to 847 Salmonella sp.mg-1 of soil. For both bacterial species, the adsorption coefficient of layer HY (located in close proximity of the water table) was greater than that of HX (located above layer HY) and seemed to positively correlate with the pH values and N/P ratios, and to negatively correlate with the values of C/N and C/P ratios. The linearity coefficient related to adsorption intensity varied from 0.5841 to 1.0023 for E. coli, and from 0.7068 to 1.5236 for Salmonella sp. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil particles seemed to influence the sorption kinetics of bacteria on soil. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Survival, Oxygen Consumption, Hematological Parameters and Some Biochemical Profiles of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 456-462; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030010
Received: 20 May 2005 / Accepted: 7 October 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were
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An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC50 value was found to be 111.45 mg/l (Cr+6 as 39.40 mg/l). ANOVA results showed that the normal respiratory activity of the fish was significantly affected and there is a depression in the metabolic rate at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96h exposure. The metal also induced significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hematological parameters of the fish like total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percent and absolute value Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) both at the end of 24h and 96h exposure indicating anemia. Appreciable decline in the biochemical profiles such as total glycogen, total lipids and total protein contents of the fish was also observed. However, the decrease in protein content was significant only at the end of 96h. This study reflects the extent of the toxic effects of hexavalent chromium and the metal induced cumulative deleterious effects at various functional levels in the widely consumed freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 463-468; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030011
Received: 13 October 2004 / Accepted: 23 February 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters.
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The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Organic Loading on Rotating Biological Contactor Efficiency
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 469-477; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030012
Received: 29 September 2004 / Accepted: 15 February 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic loading (weight per unit time per volume) is useful for the design of rotating biological contactors (RBC) and for comparison with the other processes such as activated sludge or oxidation ponds. The present study puts emphasis on the significance of this control
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Organic loading (weight per unit time per volume) is useful for the design of rotating biological contactors (RBC) and for comparison with the other processes such as activated sludge or oxidation ponds. The present study puts emphasis on the significance of this control or design parameter because it allows direct comparison of the RBC system's performance when operated under various circumstances and with different kinds of wastewater. The results of the paper proved that, the COD removal in rotating biological contactor systems is a function of the organic loading rate. However, each of the wastewater concentration and flow rate are also influence on the system efficiency but theirs impact can be combined by the effect of organic loading. The majority of COD removal (40-85 % of the total removal depending on the organic loading applied) occurs in the first stages of the system. There is a strong correlation between the organic loading and the concentration of the suspended solids in the rotating biological contactor basin. At higher loadings higher concentrations noted. At a loading of about, (24 g/m2.d) suspended solids were 225, 125, 35, and 25 mg/L in the first, second, third and, the fourth stage respectively. To achieve an effluent quality of (BOD < 25 mg/L, COD < 60 mg/L), the system must be operated on organic loadings of about (22 gBOD/m2.d and 65 gCOD/m2.d) respectively. For nitrification process, the system must be designed to operate at organic loading of about (10 g/m2.d) or less and, the reactor or basin volume should be designed to achieve a hydraulic loading of about (40 L/m2.d) or less. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 478-483; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030013
Received: 13 December 2004 / Accepted: 23 April 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: 3.1.1.7). Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration
[...] Read more.
Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: 3.1.1.7). Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 60 Ag/L (1/5 of LC50) were under stress, and reduced their locomotor behavior like distance travelled per unit time (m/min) and swimming speed (cm/sec) with respect to the length of exposure. The alteration in locomotor behavior of fish may be due to an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions, due to the inhibition of AChE enzyme activity (40 to 55%) in brain and also bioaccumulation of the toxicant in different parts of fish. The bioaccumulation values indicated that the accumulation of chlorpyrifos was maximum in viscera followed by head and body. The average bioconcentration values are 0.109, 0.009 and 0.004 Ag/g for viscera, head and body with depuration rates of 2.24, 1.69 and 0.39 ng/h respectively. It is evident from the results that the sub-lethal concentration [1/5 of LC50; equivalent to Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC)] of chlorpyrifos can able to alter the locomotor behavior of G. affinis in relation to the length of exposure. The findings revealed that the locomotor activity of test organism could be considered as a suitable marker to evaluate the affect of toxicant even at LOEC levels. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Environmental Toxicology and Health Effects Associated with Methyl Parathion Exposure – A Scientific Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 430-441; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030007
Received: 3 July 2005 / Accepted: 4 December 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methyl parathion - MP (C8H10NO5PS) is a restricted-use pesticide that has been widely used as an agricultural insecticide. It belongs to the class of organophosphate chemicals characterized by their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. The main route
[...] Read more.
Methyl parathion - MP (C8H10NO5PS) is a restricted-use pesticide that has been widely used as an agricultural insecticide. It belongs to the class of organophosphate chemicals characterized by their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. The main route of human exposure is inhalation, but dermal contact and inadvertent ingestion can also be substantial. Populations that are susceptible to MP exposure primarily are applicators, manufacturers and individuals living near application and/or disposal sites. Exposure has also been reported as a result of illegal indoor application. MP related health effects include headaches, nausea, night-waking, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, excessive sweating and salivation, incoordination, and mental confusion. Other symptoms including behavior problems, motor skill problems and impairment of memory recall have also been reported. The primary targets of toxicity are the hematopoietic system (serum cholinesterase inhibition), the cardiovascular system (cardiovascular lesions, abnormalities in heart rate and increase in heart-to-body ratio), the reproductive system (placental morphology, fibrosis and hemorrhage, and inhibition of DNA synthesis in seminiferous tubules), and the nervous system (headache, muscle weakness, insomnia, dizziness, and impaired memory). MP is believed to not have any carcinogenic effects. In an attempt to update its toxicologic profile, we hereby provide a critical review of MP-related environmental and toxicologic effects, with a special emphasis on their potential implications for public health. Full article

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