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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 478-483; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030013

Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

1
Toxicology Unit, Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (AP), India
2
Analytical Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (AP), India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2004 / Accepted: 23 April 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
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Abstract

Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: 3.1.1.7). Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 60 Ag/L (1/5 of LC50) were under stress, and reduced their locomotor behavior like distance travelled per unit time (m/min) and swimming speed (cm/sec) with respect to the length of exposure. The alteration in locomotor behavior of fish may be due to an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions, due to the inhibition of AChE enzyme activity (40 to 55%) in brain and also bioaccumulation of the toxicant in different parts of fish. The bioaccumulation values indicated that the accumulation of chlorpyrifos was maximum in viscera followed by head and body. The average bioconcentration values are 0.109, 0.009 and 0.004 Ag/g for viscera, head and body with depuration rates of 2.24, 1.69 and 0.39 ng/h respectively. It is evident from the results that the sub-lethal concentration [1/5 of LC50; equivalent to Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC)] of chlorpyrifos can able to alter the locomotor behavior of G. affinis in relation to the length of exposure. The findings revealed that the locomotor activity of test organism could be considered as a suitable marker to evaluate the affect of toxicant even at LOEC levels.
Keywords: Gambusia affinis; chlorpyrifos; bioaccumulation; behavior; acetylcholinesterase Gambusia affinis; chlorpyrifos; bioaccumulation; behavior; acetylcholinesterase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rao, J.V.; Begum, G.; Pallela, R.; Usman, P.K.; Rao, R.N. Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 478-483.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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