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Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups
Department of Environmental and Infectious Disease Sciences, Division of Biophysical Toxicology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington D.C., USA
Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
Department of Surgery, Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
Department of Chemistry, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI, USA
School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2005 / Accepted: 4 April 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
Abstract: A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA); a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.
Keywords: Cadmium; selenium; zinc; serum prostate specific antigen; prostate cancer; ethnicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Gray, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.; Slaney, D.P.; Ejnik, J.W.; Todorov, T.; Nacey, J.N. Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 374-384.
Gray MA, Centeno JA, Slaney DP, Ejnik JW, Todorov T, Nacey JN. Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(3):374-384.
Gray, Marion A.; Centeno, Jose A.; Slaney, David P.; Ejnik, John W.; Todorov, Todor; Nacey, John N. 2005. "Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 3: 374-384.