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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(3), 442-446; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005030008
Article

Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water

1, 2, 2, 1 and 2,*
Received: 2 May 2005; Accepted: 19 October 2005 / Published: 30 December 2005
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Abstract: We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free chlorine and held at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for up to 28 days. Our aim was to determine which of these two organisms (coliphage or E. coli) was better at indicating norovirus survival under the conditions of the experiment. There was a relatively rapid decline of FCV and E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water and both organisms were undetectable within one day irrespective of the temperature. In contrast, FRNA phage survived for 7 to 14 days in 50 ppm chlorine treated water at all temperatures. All organisms survived for 28 days in tap water at 4°C, but FCV was undetectable on day 21 and day 7 at 25°C and 37°C, respectively. Greater survival of FRNA phage compared to E. coli in 50 ppm chlorine treated water suggests that these organisms should be further investigated as indicators of norovirus in depurated shellfish, sanitized produce, and treated wastewater which are all subject to high-level chlorine treatment.
Keywords: D-value; F-specific coliphage; chlorination; Norovirus; water D-value; F-specific coliphage; chlorination; Norovirus; water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Allwood, P.B.; Malik, Y.S.; Maherchandani, S.; Hedberg, C.W.; Goyal, S.M. Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 442-446.

AMA Style

Allwood PB, Malik YS, Maherchandani S, Hedberg CW, Goyal SM. Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(3):442-446.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Allwood, Paul B.; Malik, Yashpal S.; Maherchandani, Sunil; Hedberg, Craig W.; Goyal, Sagar M. 2005. "Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated Water." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 3: 442-446.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert