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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5614-5633; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505614

Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Av. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Santiago 9160000, Chile
2
Ealth Service of Calama, Cobija 2188, Calama 1390000, Chile
3
Faculty of Agricultural Science. University of Chile, Av. Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana 8820000, Santiago, Chile
4
Department of Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Av. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Santiago 9160000, Chile
5
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, CSIC. PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
6
Department of Geographical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Santiago of Chile, Av. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Santiago 9160000, Chile.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic, endemic, area, drinking water, food, urine arsenic, endemic, area, drinking water, food, urine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz, O.P.; Arcos, R.; Tapia, Y.; Pastene, R.; Velez, D.; Devesa, V.; Montoro, R.; Aguilera, V.; Becerra, M. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5614-5633.

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