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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3586-3598; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403586
Article

Hypertension in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients is Associated with Increases in Insulin Resistance and IL-6 Cytokine Levels: Potential Targets for an Efficient Preventive Intervention

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Received: 4 February 2014; in revised form: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Intervention for Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Abstract: Increased body weight as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D) are found to be associated with increased incidence of hypertension, although the mechanisms facilitating hypertension in T2D or nondiabetic individuals are not clear. Therefore, in this study we compared the levels of insulin resistance (IR:OGIS), plasma insulin (PI:RIA) levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α: ELISA), being risk factors previously found to be associated with hypertension, in T2D patients showing increased body weight (obese and overweight, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) with hypertension (group A, N = 30), or without hypertension (group B, N = 30), and in nonobese (BMI < 25 kg/m2), normotensive controls (group C, N = 15). We found that OGIS index was the lowest (A: 267 ± 35.42 vs. B: 342.89 ± 32.0, p < 0.01) and PI levels were the highest (A: 31.05 ± 8.24 vs. B: 17.23 ± 3.23, p < 0.01) in group A. In addition, IL-6 levels were higher in group A (A: 15.46 ± 5.15 vs. B: 11.77 ± 6.09; p < 0.05) while there was no difference in TNF-α levels. Our results have shown that appearance of hypertension in T2D patients with increased body weight was dependent on further increase in IR which was associated with the rise in pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine. The results imply that lifestyle intervention aimed to decrease IR might be beneficial in reducing the risk for hypertension in those T2D individuals.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; hypertension; obesity; insulin resistance; IL-6; prevention type 2 diabetes; hypertension; obesity; insulin resistance; IL-6; prevention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lukic, L.; Lalic, N.M.; Rajkovic, N.; Jotic, A.; Lalic, K.; Milicic, T.; Seferovic, J.P.; Macesic, M.; Gajovic, J.S. Hypertension in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients is Associated with Increases in Insulin Resistance and IL-6 Cytokine Levels: Potential Targets for an Efficient Preventive Intervention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3586-3598.

AMA Style

Lukic L, Lalic NM, Rajkovic N, Jotic A, Lalic K, Milicic T, Seferovic JP, Macesic M, Gajovic JS. Hypertension in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients is Associated with Increases in Insulin Resistance and IL-6 Cytokine Levels: Potential Targets for an Efficient Preventive Intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(4):3586-3598.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lukic, Ljiljana; Lalic, Nebojsa M.; Rajkovic, Natasa; Jotic, Aleksandra; Lalic, Katarina; Milicic, Tanja; Seferovic, Jelena P.; Macesic, Marija; Gajovic, Jelena S. 2014. "Hypertension in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients is Associated with Increases in Insulin Resistance and IL-6 Cytokine Levels: Potential Targets for an Efficient Preventive Intervention." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 4: 3586-3598.


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