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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3599-3617; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403599
Article

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

1,* , 1,†
 and 2,†
Received: 20 December 2013; in revised form: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
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Abstract: The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.
Keywords: horse allergen concentration; 3-D dispersion model; horse allergen emission; ammonia; odor horse allergen concentration; 3-D dispersion model; horse allergen emission; ammonia; odor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haeger-Eugensson, M.; Ferm, M.; Elfman, L. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3599-3617.

AMA Style

Haeger-Eugensson M, Ferm M, Elfman L. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(4):3599-3617.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena. 2014. "Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 4: 3599-3617.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert